The Real Essence of Shiva and Narayani Tattva

“HARI OM TAT SAT”

Have you ever wondered you are one small cell who used to live in your father’s blood and from that “YOU” with a body came into existence? One cell became the embodiment of 37 trillion cells in your whole body. That cell has the inherent natural intelligence in built to knew and craft exactly where, how, when, what to make of the entire anatomy of human physiology to make the organs (like eyes, ears, kidney, heart, nails, hair, tongue, muscle, bone). This natural multiplication of single cell into a form has been the muse point for scientists, Philosophers, Thinkers, Vedanta’s, Saints, Guru’s, Baba’s, and Fakir’s across the world from dawn of the human civilization. Have you ever thought about it?

So how is this connected to Shiva or Narayana or Srimatha or Sri Rama or Srikrishna or Allah or Jesus or Buddha?

Our entire Vedanta Saram though mentioned in the form of terse verses in Sanskrit, The modernity of the current generation and lack of proper understanding has made it be visualized as cryptic and enigmatic prone to multiple interpretations and confusions, which is the root cause of so many world conflicts in the name of beliefs and faiths and religions etc.

Unfortunately, the places of worships (Temples, Buddhist Monasteries, Churches and Darghas) are too busy in there administrative, budgetary and expansion tendencies and other aspects of running their organizations and are failing to install the right concepts and meaning and teaching the real essence of our ancient scriptures.

But in actuality Vedanta Saram is more practical in nature seen and applied in our everyday life, it’s not bunch of mantras, stotras, rituals, temples, beliefs, fears, superstitions etc.

All of the Stotras, Mantras, temples and rituals are SYMBOLISM and meant for us to learn something, hidden with deeper meaning and unearth the treasure of knowledge embedded in it.

Our Societies are deeply ingrained in taking these symbolism concepts as literal and fight in the name of names and shapes and symbols and pictures, temples ,how popular is one’s faith and how silly is other’s faith and all of this is leading to turmoil and destruction ……How sad is that??

Isn’t the color of the blood “RED” across the world for all humans, isn’t the Human Body looks alike the same across the horizon irrespective of where they are from and how they are??

Yet its so different and diverse, But there is one unity that exists within them which is seen across , The process of breathing is the same, the heart beat is the same, color of the blood is the same, and so many if we keep on musing into it, in essence —-“ WE ARE THE SAME WITH DIFFERENT FORM’s “— THAT’S ALL.

Now apply this concept beyond humans to animals, plants, organic, inorganic substances, sentient beings and insentient beings, which includes entire creation – sun, moon, stars, air, cloud, water, earth, don’t you think there is very same and one commonality —- that very same intelligence without a form or shape or attachments or likings or desires or fears, just in its supreme silence is doing its thing.

Please note from the above statement there is “Doing” and then there is the “Supreme silence”.

This supreme Silence which is existing in all of us in its “Default State” can be experienced in Mediation in all of us and its also called as Shiva or Narayana, Also called Purusa

Shiva or Narayana is not a biological form or a person that’s sitting out there.

This whole brahmanda is filled with it, as a matter of fact everything and anything out there is engulfed in it and nothing can be “outside of it”.

This  tattva is very difficult to talk, as all the languages of the world is at human consciousness level and God is beyond “human” and you cannot describe  this indescribable in describable terms called language ( whatever language it is , yes even Sanskrit is limited and the  Upanishads says that clearly ). After all Language is a limited medium.

But yes, this tatva can be felt within your hearts in deep meditation. You are indeed dissolving into Shiva or Narayana Tatva in your Sleep every day and arising from that in the morning every day.

Now there is the “DOING” part from the above underlined statement— Doing is done through an action and an action is primal motive force, the basic nature of intelligence by which the Universe exists and functions, Also called as Prakṛuti or Srimatha or Shakti or Devi.

Again Srimatha or Devi is not a biological form or a person that’s sitting out there.

Its expressed as Sattva, Rajas and Tamas Gunas translated roughly as the nature of the mind as follows:

Sattva nature of Prakruti means qualities of goodness, light, Peace and harmony. Yoga Vasistha explains more in depth, people who are of a sattvic nature of Prakruti and whose activities are mainly based on sattva, will tend to seek answers regarding the origin and truth of material life. With proper support they are likely to reach liberation.

Rajas nature of Prakruti is associated with concepts of, ambition, Greed, yours and mine attitude and passion; so that, depending on how it is used, it can either have a supportive or hindering effect on the evolution of the soul.

Tamas nature of Prakruti is commonly associated with inertia, darkness, laziness, insensitivity. Souls who are more tamasic are considered imbued in darkness and take the longest to reach liberation.

Purpose of Life:

Purusa (Shiva or Narayana) + Prakṛuti (Srimatha)       -> Creation the manifestation of Life in the Universe

This is real meaning of the Ardhanareeshwara thatvam….again just a symbolism.

So what is the purpose of life? What is the purpose of creation?”

Where is this Life heading, what is Birth mean?? What is death?? Where is this universe with 13.8 billion years old journeying to somewhere??

The answer that Vedanta presents is The Creation has no purpose. It is simply a play and display of consciousness (which is so far away from human consciousness). Just like the fire and hotness cannot be separated, the Creation and the Creator are not two separate things, they are the same and all that exists is already GOD, its just the wires of our perception in our impure minds are making it see the world or Jagat in it divided and differentiated forms and shapes, which is causing confusion and disturbance and sadness and miseries.
The whole world (the way humans see it) is just a thought in the mind that is manufactured, Civilization is a thought, Iam a body and I have this name and fame, career, riches, family, relatives, friends and yes including Marriage, all is a terrible thought and pure illusion.

Man of today in his Greed, Enjoyments and Wants is stuck in this organized living in the name of modernity and forgot long time ago his true and real nature, which used to be very close to nature and was divine and pure.

This programmed mind brought down by modernity needs to be cleansed and deprogrammed and has to be taken back to its real nature (The original nature).

This process to deprograming ourselves and align ourselves to the pure nature is called Sadhana and that’s where the places of worships should help.

Shiva Thandavam is exactly the symbolic mean. The five elements (Pancha Bhuthas) are depicted in Nataraja who himself is consciousness. The dance of this pure consciousness (Prana) is the whole Universe along with Prakruthi.

Unlike the popular thought that this universe is struggling or suffering, it is wrong, the Universe is shining in its eternal glory with beauty and love spread across in its infinite ways and means. It is bliss.

Than who is this sufferer or complains on life and living in misery??

This is the limited self or Ego or the contaminated mind or deeply programmed mind that seems to think they are separated from the nature and they have their own individual identity.

So small is this limited self, that they are literally minuscule for example  the population of the world is 7 billion and an ego who claims he is the all learnt super GURU or richest or powerful or a pitadipathi or head of a huge monastery or head of a church is nothing but  just:

1/7,000,000,000 or 1.428571428571429 e-10 place in the human scale of the universe.

This number is when we consider just human beings. Now if we consider all other living and non-living being, animals, plants, organic, inorganic substances, sentient beings and insentient beings

What is the place of that limited being in this universe, you cannot even imagine how small and minuscule it can be…… it’s literally nothing.

One who does not know this truth or understands this truth suffers and is depressed or sad. One, who knows that this whole creation is a dance and god is all that’s existing in his infinite forms and shapes, finds joy. That truth is Shiva or Narayana tattva.

You simply have to be present in the moment and dissolve your mind, Because it all happens within us beyond mind and not outside of us, That’s why Hinduism is called “IN DO ISM”, All of the real worship is at the heart and not outside.

Shiva or Narayana tattva is already there right here and right now in us, God is so close to us than anything ever we can think of .We have 3 states of consciousness – waking, dreaming and sleeping, and there is a 4th state of consciousness where we are neither waking nor dreaming nor sleeping and where the triple constraints of Space, time and Causality do not exist. It is experienced in meditation.

All The Mahavakyas from the Ancient Scriptures are saying the same to attain this highest of states in which the individual self dissolves inseparably from Divinity.

  1. Prajñānam brahma – “Prajña means Knowledge or pure consciousness is Brahman “Brahman is Prajña” (Aitareya Upanishad 3.3 of the Rig Veda)
  2. Ayam ātmā brahma – “I am this Self (Atman) that is Brahman” (Mandukya Upanishad 1.2 of the Atharva Veda)
  3. Tat tvam asi – “Thou art That” (Chandogya Upanishad 6.8.7 of the Sama Veda)
  4. Aham brahmāsmi – “I am Brahman”, or “I am Divine” (Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 1.4.10 of the Yajur Veda)
  5. Brahma satyam jagan mithya – Brahman is real; the world is unreal – Vivekachudamani
  6. Ekam evadvitiyam brahma – Brahman is one, without a second – Chāndogya Upaniṣad
  7. So ‘ham – He am I – Isha Upanishad
  8. Sarvam khalvidam brahma – All of this is brahman – Brahman

So now think again………Who do you think you are? You are not just a name, not just a form. You are that scintillating consciousness that is Shiva or Narayana and Srimatha or Narayani tattva. The temple of Shiva or Narayan and Srimatha is made up of the consciousness of human beings, not of stones. That which encompasses the whole Universe.

“HARI OM TAT SAT”

SCIENCE IS UPANISHADS IN PROGRESS

It’s a little over a hundred years ago.

The nineteenth century was at its fag end. The Spanish, French, Holy Roman and the Mughal empires had by then collapsed. The British empire was at its height.

Significant advances in medical knowledge contributed to the wellness of the people and increase in population. Remarkable progress was made in all fields of science – mathematics, physics, biology, chemistry, metallurgy and so on. Aspirin was invented and ambitious technology to fly in the sky for mass transport was taking shape.

Physicists of the day became smug. Everything worth knowing about nature and its laws were considered to have already been known.

Lord Kelvin, himself a respected Physicist, declared: “There is nothing new to be discovered in physics now, all that remains is more and more precise measurement.”

With the dawn of the twentieth century, the times, however, turned very tumultuous. Rather innocuously but suddenly.

Twenty-something Physicists from different parts of Europe began to demolish all the carefully constructed concepts that ruled the roost for centuries before them.

There was excitement all around.

The supposedly all pervading aether in the entirety of the universe, almost like a divine-entity, was established to be non-existent.

The words of the doubting Toms who said that the presence of ‘atoms’ could never be proved were disproved.

Hot bodies were found to cool down, not gradually but, by losing their heat in discrete amounts radiated out as packets of energy. Light too was found to move as streams of little packets when it was transmitted. These packets of energy were given the name – “Quanta” (quantum – singular).

Soon, the most revolutionizing Quantum Physics took shape.

The cozy assumption that ‘space’ where we all exist was absolute and unchanging was shaken up. The snug belief in the irrevocable one-way arrow of time along which all things get pushed was punctured.  The confidence of the Physicists who boasted that they could predict the location of any object in the universe if they were given all the information about its current position was tattered beyond redemption. An element of probability replaced the definitive determinism about the laws of nature or even our own existence.

Quantum Physics comprehensively described how small particles of the size of an atom or smaller would behave. It is unlike anything we are familiar with or can know intuitively. For example:

  1. An atomic or subatomic size particle can exist here, there or anywhere all at the same time, as if it is smeared allover the universe. Probably, there is a denser smear where you think you find it.
  2. If two particles come once in touch with each other, they never lose again their bond, even if they are separated to the either end of the universe. If a change is brought out on one of them, the other reacts instantaneously.
  3. These particles can pass through thick walls and appear on the other side in no time at all as if they penetrated through the obstructions by tunneling.
  4. These particles can exist simultaneously in more than one state –  equivalent to saying that a cat, say, can be dead and alive at the same time. What exact state it is in (dead or alive) depends on the observer also and not merely on the cat.
  5. The particles can travel from the past to the present and on to the future and equally comfortably from the present or future to the past. The arrow of time is not a one-way street for them.
  6. Vacuum is a place of ‘nohingness’ for us. But it actually sizzless with the constant birth and death of these particles. Vacuum derives enormous energy from the appearance and disappearance of these particles.
  7. When these small particles propagate, they move sometimes as bullets, and sometimes like waves on the surface of a lake. What exactly is their form is incomprehensible (we shall discuss this matter in more detail in the next part of this article).

And imagine that all of us and everything we operate with are made up of such strangely behaving particles! Do you think you are still there if what constitutes you is partly here, partly maybe on moon, and God knows where else!

Most of this revolution in Physics had happened not in expensive laboratories; nor did it result from the joint effort of a host of specialists.  It came about from the intense contemplative ‘gedankenexperiment’ (thought experiment) of sage-like scientists working individually at their own desks.

There were undoubtedly many stalwart scientists who knit the earth-shaking paradigm-shifting new Physics of those times. But one name that tops them all is, indisputably, that of Dr. Albert Einstein. With a series of ground-breaking papers in one year, he changed irrevocably the face of Physics in 1905. By another decade, he came up with his Theory of Relativity to explain the gravitational attraction by massive bodies.

The thus-far inexplicable change in the orientation in the orbit of the planet Mercury as it orbited around the Sun (precession of the perihelion) was not any more a heavenly mystery.  Einstein’s theory could explain it very accurately. His theory explained why large bodies like the earth have gravity. He said that such massive entities bend the fabric of space like you create a depression with your body weight when you sit on a trampoline.

Even the distant stars in the sky began to yield their secrets to the inquisitive minds of the astronomers.  Based on the equations that Dr. Einstein established, one of the Physicists (he was actually a clergyman too) proposed that at one time in the past the entire universe should have been no bigger than the size of the period at the end of this sentence. The theory said that the universe evolved from that point size to what it is now over billions of years – much like what our ancients said from the anDa (egg) to the brahmAnDa (cosmos).

Yes, The Modern Physics had arrived.

The most accurate estimate of the age of the universe based on data from space satellites (WMAP, 2010 and PLANCK, 2013) today is 13,800,000,000 (i.e. 13.8 billion) years. Our Solar system and the earth formed about 4.5 billion years ago and are expected to have a further life of about 4.5 billion years.

(Compare the above periods to a Kalpa or one day time in the life of Brahma – 4.32 billion years. Brahma has equally long night time. The Kaliyuga is supposed to have started in 3100 B.C. E. as per the astronomical calculations using modern computer software. It lasts for 432,000 human years. A Mahayuga, comprising Kali, Dwapara, Treta and Krita yugas, has a length of 4,320,000 years).

Thus in less than three decades after the heralding of the twentieth century, two broad theories emerged – the Quantum theories explaining the physics of the small particles and Relativity theory of Dr. Einstein dealing with large bodies, though nobody knew at what size of the matter the physics changes from one theory to the other.

Dr. Einstein also proved the identity of matter and energy through his famous equation

E = m c2

where ‘m’ represents the mass of the matter and c is the constant speed at which light travels. Thus all matter could be converted into energy as per the above equation.

As per the present understanding of the Physicists, energy manifests in the form of four forces in the universe – the electromagnetic force, the weak nuclear force, the strong nuclear force and the gravitational force. It is common sense that these four forms of forces must have had existed as a single force in the beginning of the universe. But unfortunately, Physicists are still unable to deduce the nature of that single Grand United force.

The principles of Quantum Physics applicable for small particles could not be used when all the forces are merged into a singularity at the beginning of the universe because of the enormous mass of the dot (into which the matter of the entire universe gets compressed). The Relativity theory which is useful for understanding heavy masses becomes inapplicable because of the minute size of the particle. As a result, Physicists to this date do not know what sort of laws will be valid for application at the beginning of the universe. Everyone is eagerly awaiting the arrival of another Einstein to throw light on the problem.

pilu-paka-vada AND pithara-paka-vada : A Deeper Analysis of Situations in the modifications of Matter and Mind

Introduction

Although the two schools of Vaisesika and Nyaya are generally viewed as having merged to form a single system, there are said to be three points of difference between the two that survive to this day. Each point involves the analysis of situations in which certain qualities appear to be produced in substances that did not possess them previously. The Vaisesika school specializes in meticulous explanations of physical events, and on each of the points in question an unreconstructed Vaisesika philosopher will hold to a complex and peculiar theory, rejected by the followers of the Nyaya school in favor of a more commonsense approach, and ridiculed by all other schools of Indian philosophy.

The most notorious of the three points is the problem of how it happens that new qualities may be produced in earthy substances when they are exposed to heat. Although four types of qualities are said to be produced through heating—color, taste, aroma, and feel—the standard examination of the problem focuses on the change of color that occurs when a clay pot is fired in the kiln. A black pot goes in and a red one comes out; the Nyaya school (in what is called the pithara-paka-vada, “doctrine of the heating of the pot”) maintains simply that the heat changes the color of the pot from black to red by penetrating down to the level of the molecules, while the Vaisesika (in what is called the pilu-paka-vada, “doctrine of the heating of the atoms”) insists, for reasons offered below, that the heat dismantles the black pot into its constituent atoms, destroys the black color of those atoms, and produces red color in them, after which the newly red atoms are recombined to form a red pot of the same shape as the previous black one. The passage translated below is a famous presentation of this strange theory, culminating in the Vaisesikas’ trademark procedure of counting, moment by moment, the precise number of steps required in a scrupulous account of every detail of causation involved in the problem at hand.

In this case the counting of moments is complicated by considerations involving the second of the three points of difference, the problem of the ways in which disjunction between substances can come about. For both the Nyaya school and the Vaisesika school, the term “disjunction” (vibhaga) refers to the state of being spatially separated, which is analyzed as a quality, rather than to the act of becoming separated, which is analyzed as a motion. Neither should be confused with the destruction of contact between substances, which is analyzed as yet another event. It is characteristic of the painstaking linear approach of the Vaisesikas that each of these three is given a step of its own in the causal sequence, so that the motion which removes one substance from another is the cause of the subsequent disjunction between them, which in turn is the cause of the subsequent destruction of the contact between them, which in turn paves the way for a fourth event (and thus a fourth moment in the sequence), that of the contact of the substance with a new location.

This much is accepted by the Nyaya school as well, and both schools can agree that when a person withdraws a hand that had been leaning against a tree, the motion of the hand is the cause of the hand’s subsequent state of disjunction from the tree. But what about the disjunction of the person’s body from the tree? The Nyaya school is content to say that this is caused by the same motion (although in its “New” version, armed with a metalanguage of limitors and describers, the school returns to the problem of whole and part that is involved here), while the Vaisesikas consider this too simple, since the motion of a part is not the motion of the whole, as a turning wheel demonstrates. They insist that in such circumstances one disjunction (e.g., body from tree) may have to be viewed as caused by another disjunction (e.g., hand from tree).

The third point of disagreement between the two schools is not directly referred to in the passage translated here, and involves the problem of how the quality of number arises in a substance. Both schools recognize that the fact of an object’s being part of a group of two objects or part of a group of three objects is associated with an enumerating cognition on the part of an observer. The Nyaya school says that this cognition serves to manifest a number already present, while the Vaisesika school insists that the enumerating cognition actually brings into being the quality of number in the substances so enumerated. At first glance the Vaisesika view may seem the simpler, but the element of causation leads to greater complexity on the level of counting the individual moments required.

The passage translated below is from a particularly skillful treatise on the views of the Vaisesika school, the Kiranavali of Udayana (11th century). For all its originality, this text is formally a commentary on another very original work, the Padarthadharmasangraha or Prasastapadabhasya of Prasastapada (5th century), which in turn is ostensibly a commentary on the Vaisesika Sutras themselves.

In reading the passage, keep in mind that what is meant by the destruction of a molecule is not the obliteration of its matter but the dismantling of its parts, and that what is meant by disjunction is not the process of separating substances but the state of their separation.

Udayana’s commentary on this in the Kiranavali:

Now what harm would there be if (we were to suppose that) the cessation of the previous color, etc., and the arising of the subsequent color, etc., were to take place in the composite substance itself? (In response) to this he offers this refutation: “And the cessation and arising of color, etc., cannot take place in a composite substance.” Why not? (you might ask). Hence he says, “Because it is not pervaded by heat in all its parts, both inside and out.” What he means is that there would be no heating (of the entire substance) because, even if the heat reached the substance as a whole, it could not reach to the innermost parts because of obstruction by the outer parts. (But, you might say,) composite substances do have intervals (between their parts, through which the heat might penetrate), or else how could the water in the middle (of a pot on the fire) show agitation and motion? So there is nothing to rule out penetration (of the heat) to the atoms. Hence he says, “Nor can pervasion occur by penetrating to the atoms.” Why? “Because of the (resulting) destruction of the composite substance.”

The idea is this. Since heat is such a light thing its velocity and its impact are so great that the motion it produces knocks out of place the previous arrangement of a composite substance and brings its parts into a different arrangement. Otherwise how could such (composite substances) as milk and water swell up when they are boiled, once the heat has penetrated into the intervals (between their parts)? If (you reply that) this is because of the weak contact (between the parts in such fluids), (we say) no, because the same (swelling) is observed in (firmer and more compact substances) such as rice grains as well. And because even the hardest (substances), such as gems and diamonds, explode when heated. If (you reply that) this is because of the intensity of the contact with heat, (we say) what does “intensity” mean? If (your answer is that it means) being repeated many times, (we say) no, because if the preliminary (application of heat) is not effective, what use is repeated application? (It is of no use,) because there can be no accumulation on the part of sequential items that are momentary by nature. Therefore we view it as reasonable to suppose that just as in the body (of a human being), for example, a change that is not noticed day by day may be perceived as obvious after the interval of some time, so also in something like the heating of a pot (a gross change may occur through minute events not noticed in themselves). This refutes the notion that the destruction of the previous substance is proven through certain facts: that we recognize (the pot as being the same as before), that we see it (abiding) in all the stages (of its being fired), that other objects of clay placed above it (when the items to be fired are stacked in the kiln) are held up (rather than crashing down because the supporting pot is destroyed), and that there is no change in such (characteristics) as its external shape, its number, its size, and the lines, scratches, or other identifying marks upon it. (The notion is refuted) because it is possible (for there to be a new pot even though in most respects it seems to be the same pot as before), just as, for example, a pot that has had three or four tiny particles scraped away by being pierced with a needle (is no longer the same pot as before). In spite of this the Mimamsakas are impudent enough to claim that (substances) such as a pot are never really destroyed at all. They deserve our pity. For once the atoms have ceased to exist the molecules must necessary be destroyed; otherwise it would follow that effects would be permanent. And upon their destruction the tiny particles (made up of molecules) would necessarily be destroyed, and upon their destruction, their effects (would be destroyed), and so on by this same sequence down to the general destruction of the end products; because otherwise it would follow that effects persist even after they have lost their substratum. Even if a few of the parts are destroyed, (you might argue,) the remaining parts could provide a substratum for the effect. They could not, (we reply,) because a substance that possesses a size capable of being filled out by a given number of parts simply will not fit within a reduced number (of parts). If (you propose that) there will be a shrinking in size, as in a cloth that is folded up, (we reply that) there could not be; for (in the case of a cloth before and after folding) there is no difference between the two, since the lack of difference is a property of the substance. (This is so) because no destruction (of the previous size without the destruction of the underlying substance is possible), since the size abides as long as the substance exists, and can be destroyed only when the underlying substance is destroyed. If (you propose) that it will also be subject to destruction upon the removal or destruction of some parts of its substratum, (we say) no, because it is wishful thinking to suppose that upon the removal or destruction of parts the whole will not be destroyed but its size will be destroyed. If (you insist on your theory) because of our recognizing the whole (as being the same as before), then why is it that we cannot recognize its size (as being the same as before) when only a few tiny parts have been removed? But enough of this torment.

Now, students will wish to know how many moments it takes, starting with the destruction of the molecules (of the old pot), for (the new) molecules to be produced and to come to possess color. In order to clarify the mind of students, the sequence involved is (summarized) as follows:

  1. Through a sequence beginning with the impulse (i.e., the contact with heat, which generates motion within the pot, which in turn causes the separation of its constituent parts), there is the destruction of the molecule.
  2. Once the molecule is destroyed, (the original color,) e.g., black, ceases to exist in the atom, through contact with heat.
  3. Once (the color) black, etc., has ceased to exist (in the atom), there arises, through yet another contact with heat, (the new color,) e.g., red (in the atom).
  4. Once (the color) such as red has arisen, then because of the contact of the atom with souls, in which the unseen power (of fate inheres, by which those souls are destined to experience in the future the new pot that is about to be formed), there arises in the atoms a motion conducive to the assembling of a (new) molecule.
  5. By this motion (is produced) disjunction (of the atoms) from their previous locations.
  6. And by this disjunction (is produced) the destruction of the contact (of the atoms) with their previous locations.
  7. Once this has been destroyed, there arises the contact (of each atom) with another atom.
  8. From the conjoined atoms there is the construction of a molecule.
  9. In the constructed molecule there is the arising of qualities, such as the colors, as effects of the qualities of the (atoms which are the material) cause (of the molecule).

Thus there are nine moments in the sequence.

The sequence as given above is in accordance with the view that both (a) the disjunction that destroys the contact (between parts) that constructs the (composite) substance and (b) the disjunction that does not destroy (the constructing contact, viz., the disjunction of a part from its previous location in space rather than from its contact with another part) are caused by (a single) motion. On the view that the disjunction (caused by the motion) causes the destruction of the previous contact (of part with part), and thereupon arise both the destruction of the (composite) substance and a disjunction (of the parts from their previous location in space) caused (not by the original motion but) by (the first) disjunction, there will be (not nine but) ten moments, as follows:

  1. The destruction of the molecule (as in the sequence above), and the arising of a disjunction caused by disjunction (i.e., a disjunction of the atoms from their previous places in space, caused by the previous disjunction of the atoms from each other, which was the cause of the destruction of the contact between the atoms and thus of the molecule).
  2. The destruction of the prior contact (of the atoms with their original locations in space), and the cessation of such (qualities) as (the color) black (in the atoms).
  3. The subsequent contact (of the atoms with their new locations in space), and the arising (of the new qualities) such as (the color) red.
  4. The cessation of the disjunction caused by the disjunction and of the motion.
  5. The (new) motion in the atoms, which will cause the construction of the (new composite) substance.
  6. Disjunction (of the atoms from their intermediate location in space), caused by the motion.
  7. Cessation of the contact (of the atoms from their intermediate location in space), caused by that (disjunction).
  8. Contact (of the atoms) with other atoms.
  9. The arising (of a new composite) substance (viz., the molecule).
  10. The arising of the quality (i.e., the color, in the molecule).

However, on the view that subsequent to the destruction of the (composite) substance (viz., the molecule) there will be the disjunction caused by disjunction and the cessation of the black color, and subsequent to that the cessation of the previous contact and the arising of the red color, and subsequent to that the arising of the subsequent contact, and subsequent to that the cessation of the disjunction caused by disjunction and of the motion, and subsequent to that the motion in the atoms that will cause the construction of the substance, there will be (not nine or ten but) eleven moments, as follows: …

Udayana discusses other possible sequences and then concludes the section with the following remark:

And so what we learn from all of this is that the special qualities of a composite (substance) last as long as the substance lasts, and that they can be produced by heating only at the level of atoms. This should be viewed as logical support for the same points that I made in discussing the soul: that (qualities of the soul) such as pleasure cannot belong to the body (which is a composite substance), because they do not last as long as it lasts, nor can they belong to (the mind, which is) an atomic thing, because they are perceptible.

TIME LINE OF THE WORLD : FROM THE DAWN OF HUMANITY TIL NOW

                                                            Timeline of the World

The extensive timeline below is from Hinduism Today, who assembled it in 1994 from many sources, including the most recent archaeological information available.  It is Hinduism Today who has compiled the data.

Approximate dates are preceded by the letter “ca,” an abbreviation of the word “circa,” which denotes “about,” “around” or “in approximately.” All dates prior to Buddha (624 bce) are considered estimates. The abbreviation “bce” means “before common era,” referring to dating prior to the year zero in the Western, or Gregorian calendar, system. The abbreviation “ce” means “common era” and is equivalent to the abbreviation “ad.” When “ce” follows a date, it indicates that the year in question comes after the year zero in the Western, or Gregorian calendar, system.

-2.5m to -1000

-2.5 m: Genus Homo originates in Africa, cradle of humanity.

-2 m: Stone artifacts are made and used by hominids in North India, an area rich in animal species, including the elephant.

-500,000: Stone hand axes and other tools are used in N. India.

-470,000: India’s hominids are active in Tamil Nadu and Punjab.

-400,000: Soan culture in India is using primitive chopping tools.

-360,000: Fire is first controlled by homo erectus in China.

-300,000: Homo sapiens roams the earth, from Africa to Asia.

-100,000: Homo sapiens sapiens (humans) with 20th-century man’s brain size (1,450 cc) live in East Africa. Populations separate. Migrations proceed to Asia via the Isthmus of Suez.

-75,000: Last ice age begins. Human population is 1.7 million.

-45,000: After mastery of marine navigation, migrations from Southeast Asia settle Australia and the Pacific islands.

-40,000: Groups of hunter-gatherers in Central India are living in painted rock shelters. Similar groups in Northern Punjab work at open sites protected by windbreaks.

-35,000: Migrations of separated Asian populations settle Europe.

-30,000: American Indians spread throughout the Americas.

-10,000: Last ice age ends after 65,000 years; earliest signs of agriculture. World population 4 million; India is 100,000.

-10,000: Taittiriya Brahmana 3.1.2 refers to Purvabhadrapada nakshatra’s rising due east, a phenomenon occurring at this date (Dr. B.G. Siddharth of Birla Science Institute), indicating the earliest known dating of the sacred Veda.

-10,000: Vedic culture, the essence of humanity’s eternal wisdom, Sanatana Dharma, lives in the Himalayas at end of Ice Age.

-9000: Old Europe, Anatolia and Minoan Crete display a Goddess-centered culture reflecting a matriarchial order.

-8500: Taittiriya Samhita 6.5.3 places Pleiades asterism at winter solstice, suggesting the antiquity of this Veda.

-7500: Excavations at Neveli Cori in Turkey reveal advanced civilization with meticulous architecture and planning. Dr. Sri B.G. Siddharth believes this was a Vedic culture.

-7000: Proto-Vedic period ends. Early Vedic period begins.

-7000: Time of Manu Vaivasvata, “father of mankind,” of Sarasvati-Drishadvati area (also said to be a South Indian Maharaja who sailed to the Himalayas during a great flood).

-7000: Early evidence of horses in the Ganga region (Frawley).

-7000: Indus-Sarasvati area residents of Mehrgarh grow barley, raise sheep and goats. They store grain, entomb their dead and construct buildings of sun-baked mud bricks.

-6776: Start of Hindu lists of kings according to ancient Greek references that give Hindus 150 kings and a history of 6,400 years before 300bce; agrees with next entry.

-6500: Rig Veda verses (e.g., 1.117.22, 1.116.12, 1.84.13.5) say winter solstice begins in Aries (according to Dr. D. Frawley), indicating the antiquity of this section of the Vedas.

-6000: Early sites on the Sarasvati River, then India’s largest, flowing west of Delhi into the Rann of Kutch; Rajasthan is a fertile region with much grassland, as described in the Rig Veda. The culture, based upon barley (yava), copper (ayas) and cattle, also reflects that of the Rig Veda.

-5500: Mehrgarh villagers are making baked pottery and thousands of small, clay of female figurines (interpreted to be earliest signs of Shakti worship), and are involved in long-distance trade in precious stones and sea shells.

-5500: Date of astrological observations associated with ancient events later mentioned in the Puranas (Alain Danielou).

-5000: World population, 5 million, doubles every 1,000 years.

-5000: Beginnings of Indus-Sarasvati civilizations of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro. Date derived by considering archeological sites, reached after excavating 45 feet. Brick fire altars exist in many houses, suggesting Vedic fire rites, yajna. Earliest signs of worship of Lord Siva. This mature culture will last 3,000 years, ending around -1700.

-5000: Rice is harvested in China, with grains found in baked bricks. But its cultivation originated in Eastern India.

-4300: Traditional dating for Lord Rama’s time.

-4000: Excavations from this period at Sumerian sites of Kish and Susa reveal existence of Indian trade products.

-4000: India’s population is 1 million.

-4000: Date of world’s creation (Christian genealogies).

-3928: July 25th, the earliest eclipse mentioned in the Rig Veda (according to Indian researcher Dr. Shri P.C. Sengupta).

-3200: Hindu astronomers called nakshatra darshas record in Vedic texts their observations of full moon and new moon at the winter and summer solstices and spring and fall equinoxes with reference to 27 fixed stars (nakshatras) spaced nearly equally on the moon’s ecliptic or apparent path across the sky. The precession of the equinoxes (caused by the wobbling of the Earth’s axis of rotation) causes the nakshatras to appear to drift at a constant rate along a predictable course over a 25,000-year cycle. From these observations historians are able to calculate backwards and determine the date when the indicated position of moon, sun and nakshatra occurred.

-3102: Kali Era Hindu calendar starts. Kali Yuga begins.

-3100: Reference to vernal equinox in Rohini (middle of Taurus) from some Brahmanas, as noted by B.G. Tilak, Indian scholar and patriot. Traditional date of the Mahabharata war and lifetime of Lord Krishna.

-3100: Early Vedic period ends, late Vedic period begins.

-3100: India includes Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia.

-3100: Aryan people inhabit Iran, Iraq and Western Indus-Sarasvati Valley frontier. Frawley describes Aryans as “a culture of spiritual knowledge.” He and others believe 1) the Land of Seven Rivers (Sapta Sindhu) mentioned in the Rig Veda refers to India only, 2) that the people of Indus-Sarasvati Valleys and those of Rig Veda are the same, and 3) there was no Aryan invasion. This view is now prevailing over the West’s historical concept of the Aryans as a separate ethnic or linguistic group. Still others claim the Indus-Sarasvati people were Dravidians who moved out or were displaced by incoming Aryans.

-3000: Weaving in Europe, Near East and Indus-Sarasvati Valley is primarily coiled basketry, either spiraled or sewn.

-3000: Evidence of horses in South India.

-3000: People of Tehuacan, Mexico, are cultivating corn.

-3000: Saiva Agamas are recorded in the time of the earliest Tamil Sangam. (A traditional date.)

-2700: Seals of Indus-Sarasvati Valley indicate Siva worship, in depictions of Siva as Pashupati, Lord of Animals.

-2600: Indus-Sarasvati civilization reaches a height it sustains until 1700 bce. Spreading from Pakistan to Gujarat, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh, it is the largest of the world’s three oldest civilizations with links to Mesopotamia (possibly Crete), Afghanisthan, Central Asia and Karnataka. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro have populations of 100,000.

-2600: Major portions of the Veda hymns are composed during the reign of Vishvamitra I (Dating by Dr. S.B. Roy).

-2600: Drying up of Drishadvati River of Vedic fame, along with possible shifting of the Yamuna to flow into the Ganga.

-2600: First Egyptian pyramid is under construction.

-2500: Main period of Indus-Sarasvati cities. Culture relies heavily on rice and cotton, as mentioned in Atharva Veda, which were first developed in India. Ninety percent of sites are along the Sarasvati, the region’s agricultural bread basket. Mohenjo-daro is a large peripheral trading center. Rakhigari and Ganweriwala (not yet excavated in 1994) on the Sarasvati are as big as Mohenjo-daro. So is Dholarvira in Kutch. Indus-Sarasvati sites have been found as far south as Karnataka’s Godavari River and north into Afghanistan on the Amu Darya River.

-2500: Reference to vernal equinox in Krittika (Pleiades or early Taurus) from Yajur and Atharva Veda hymns and Brahmanas. This corresponds to Harappan seals that show seven women (the Krittikas) tending a fire.

-2300: Sargon founds Mesopotamian kingdom of Akkad, trades with Indus-Sarasvati Valley cities.

-2300: Indo-Europeans in Russia’s Ural steppelands develop efficient spoked-wheel chariot technology, using 1,000-year-old horse husbandry and freight-cart technology.

-2050: Vedic people are living in Persia and Afghanistan.

-2051: Divodasa reigns to -1961, has contact with Babylon’s King Indatu (Babylonian chronology). Dating by S.B. Roy.

ca -2040: Prince Rama is born at Ayodhya, site of future Rama temple. (This and next two datings by S.B. Roy.)

-2033: Reign of Dasharatha, father of Lord Rama. King Ravana, villain of the Ramayana, reigns in Sri Lanka.

-2000: Indo-Europeans (Celts, Slavs, Lithuanians, Ukranians) follow cosmology, theology, astronomy, ritual, society and marriage that parallel early Vedic patterns.

-2000: Probable date of first written Saiva Agamas.

-2000: World population: 27 million. India: 5 million or 22%. India has roughly G of human race throughout history.

-1915: All Madurai Tamil Sangam is held at Thiruparankundram (according to traditional Tamil chronology).

-1900: Late Vedic period ends, post Vedic period begins.

-1900: Drying up of Sarasvati River, end of Indus-Sarasvati culture, end of the Vedic age. After this, the center of civilization in ancient India relocates from the Sarasvati to the Ganga, along with possible migration of Vedic peoples out of India to the Near East (perhaps giving rise to the Mittani and Kassites, who worship Vedic Gods). The redirection of the Sutlej into the Indus causes the Indus area to flood. Climate changes make the Sarasvati region too dry for habitation. (Thought lost, its river bed is finally photographed from satellite in the 1990s.)

-1500: Egyptians bury their royalty in the Valley of the Kings.

-1500: Polynesians migrate throughout Pacific islands.

-1500: Submergence of the stone port city of Dwarka near Gujarat, where early Brahmi script, India’s ancient alphabet, is used. Recent excavation by Dr. S.R. Rao. Larger than Mohenjo-daro, many identify it with the Dwarka of Krishna. Possible date of Lord Krishna. Indicates second urbanization phase of India between Indus-Sarasvati sites like Harappa and later cities on the Ganga.

-1500: Indigenous iron technology in Dwarka and Kashmir.

-1500: Cinnamon is exported from Kerala to Middle East.

-1472: Reign of Dhritarashtra, father of the Kauravas. Reign of Yudhisthira, king of the Pandavas. Life of Sage Yajnavalkya. Date based on Mahabharata’s citation of winter solstice at Dhanishtha, which occurs around this time.

-1450: End of Rig Veda Samhita narration.

-1450: Early Upanishads are composed during the next few hundred years, also Vedangas and Sutra literature.

-1424: Bharata battle is fought, as related in the Mahabharata. (Professor Subash Kak places the battle at -2449. Other authors give lower dates, up to 9th century bce)

-1424: Birth of Parikshit, grandson of Arjuna, and next king.

-1350: At Boghaz Koi in Turkey, stone inscription of the Mitanni treaty lists as divine witnesses the Vedic Deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra and the Nasatyas (Ashvins).

-1316: Mahabharata epic poem is composed by Sage Vyasa.

-1300: Panini composes Ashtadhyayi, systematizing Sanskrit grammar in 4,000 terse rules. (Date according to Roy.)

-1300: Changes are made in the Mahabharata and Ramayana through 200 bce. Puranas are edited up until 400 ce. Early smriti literature is composed over next 400 years.

-1255: King Shuchi of Magadha writes Jyotisha Vedanga, including astronomical observations which date this scripture-that summer solstice occurs in Ashlesha Nakshatra.

-1250: Moses leads 600,000 Jews out of Egypt.

-1200: Probable time of the legendary Greek Trojan War celebrated in Homer’s epic poems, Iliad and Odyssey (ca -750).

-1124: Elamite Dynasty of Nebuchadnezzar (-1124-1103) moves capital to Babylon, world’s largest city, covering 10,000 hectares, slightly larger than present-day San Francisco.

-1000: Late Vedic period ends. Post-Vedic period begins.

-1000 to 1000

-1000: World population is 50 million, doubling every 500 years.

-975: King Hiram of Phoenicia, for the sake of King Solomon of Israel, trades with the port of Ophir (Sanskrit: Supara) near modern Bombay, showing the trade between Israel and India. Same trade goes back to Harappan era.

-950: Jewish people arrive in India in King Solomon’s merchant fleet. Later Jewish colonies find India a tolerant home.

-950: Gradual breakdown of Sanskrit as a spoken language occurs over the next 200 years.

-925: Jewish King David forms an empire in what is present-day Israel and Lebanon.

-900: Iron Age in India. Early use dates to at least -1500.

ca -900: Earliest records of the holy city of Varanasi (one of the world’s oldest living cities) on the sacred river Ganga.

-900: Use of iron supplements bronze in Greece.

-850: The Chinese are using the 28-nakshatra zodiac called Shiu, adapted from the Hindu jyotisha system.

ca -800: Later Upanishads are recorded.

-800: Later smriti, secondary Hindu scripture, is composed, elaborated and developed during next 1,000 years.

-776: First Olympic Games are held in Greece.

-750: Prakrits, vernacular or “natural” languages, develop among India’s common peoples. Already flourishing in 500 bce , Pali and other Prakrits are chiefly known from Buddhist and Jain works composed at this time.

-750: Priestly Sanskrit is gradually refined over next 500 years, taking on its classical form.

-700: Life of Zoroaster of Persia, founder of Zoroastrianism. His holy book, Zend Avesta, contains many verses from the Rig and Atharva Veda. His strong distinctions between good and evil set the dualistic tone of God and devil which distinguishes all later Western religions.

-700: Early Smartism emerges from the syncretic Vedic brahminical (priestly caste) tradition. It flourishes today as a liberal sect alongside Saiva, Vaishnava and Shakta sects.

-623-543: Life of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, born in Uttar Pradesh in a princely Shakya Saivite family. (Date by Sri Lankan Buddhists. Indian scholars say -563-483. Mahayanists of China and Japan prefer -566-486 or later.)

ca -600: Life of Sushruta, of Varanasi, the father of surgery. His ayurvedic treatises cover pulse diagnosis, hernia, cataract, cosmetic surgery, medical ethics, 121 surgical implements, antiseptics, use of drugs to control bleeding, toxicology, psychiatry, classification of burns, midwifery, surgical anesthesia and therapeutics of garlic.

ca -600: The Ajivika sect, an ascetic, atheistic group of naked sadhus reputated for fierce curses, is at its height, continuing in Mysore until the 14th century. Adversaries of both Buddha and Mahavira, their philosophy is deterministic, holding that everything is inevitable.

ca -600: Lifetime of Lao-tzu, founder of Taoism in China, author of Tao-te Ching. Its esoteric teachings of simplicity and selflessness shape Chinese life for 2,000 years and permeate the religions of Vietnam, Japan and Korea.

-599-527: Lifetime of Mahavira Vardhamana, 24th Tirthankara and revered renaissance Jain master. His teachings stress strict codes of vegetarianism, asceticism and nonviolence. (Some date his life 40 years later. )

-560: In Greece, Pythagoras teaches math, music, vegetarianism and yoga-drawing from India’s wisdom ways.

-551-478: Lifetime of Confucius, founder of Confucianist faith. His teachings on social ethics are the basis of Chinese education, ruling-class ideology and religion.

-518: Darius I of Persia (present Iran) invades Indus Valley. This Zoroastrian king shows tolerance for local religions.

ca -500: Lifetime of Kapila, founder of Sankhya Darshana, one of six classical systems of Hindu philosophy.

ca -500: Dams to store water are constructed in India.

-500: World population is 100 million. India population is 25 million (15 million of whom live in the Ganga basin).

ca -500: Over the next 300 years (according to the later dating of Muller) numerous secondary Hindu scriptures (smriti) are composed: Shrauta Sutras, Grihya Sutras, Dharma Sutras, Mahabharata, Ramayana and Puranas, etc.

ca -500: Tamil Sangam age (500 bce-500 ce) begins. Sage Agastya writes Agattiyam, first known Tamil grammar. Tolkappiyar writes Tolkappiyam Purananuru, also on grammar, stating that he is recording thoughts on poetry, rhetoric, etc., of earlier grammarians, pointing to high development of Tamil language prior to his day. He gives rules for absorbing Sanskrit words into Tamil. Other famous works from the Sangam age are the poetical collections Paripadal, Pattuppattu, Ettuthokai Purananuru, Akananuru, Aingurunuru, Padinenkilkanakku. Some refer to worship of Vishnu, Indra, Murugan and Supreme Siva.

ca -486: Ajatashatru (reign -486-458) ascends Magadha throne.

-480: Ajita, a nastika (atheist) who teaches a purely material explanation of life and that death is final, dies.

-478: Prince Vijaya, exiled by his father, King Sinhabahu, sails from Gujarat with 700 followers. Founds Singhalese kingdom in Sri Lanka. (Mahavamsa chronicle, ca 500.)

-450: Athenian philosopher Socrates flourishes (ca -470-400).

-428-348: Lifetime of Plato, Athenian disciple of Socrates. This great philosopher founds Athens Academy in -387.

ca -400: Panini composes his Sanskrit grammar, the Ashtadhyayi. (Date accepted among most Western scholars.)

ca -400: Lifetime of Hippocrates, Greek physician and “father of medicine,” formulates Hippocratic oath, code of medical ethics still pledged by present-day Western doctors.

ca -350: Rainfall is measured by Indian scientists.

-326: Alexander the Great of Greece invades, but fails to conquer, Northern India. His soldiers mutiny. He leaves India the same year. Greeks who remain in India intermarry with Indians. Interchanges of philosophy influence both civilizations. Greek sculpture impacts Hindu styles. Bactria kingdoms later enhance Greek influence.

305: Chandragupta Maurya, founder of first pan-Indian empire (-324-184), defeats Greek garrisons of Seleucus, founder of Seleucan Empire in Persia and Syria. At its height under Emperor Ashoka (reign -273-232), the Mauryan Empire includes all India except the far South.

ca -302: Kautilya (Chanakya), minister to Chandragupta Maurya, writes Arthashastra, a compendium of laws, administrative procedures and political advice for running a kingdom.

-302: In Indica, Megasthenes, envoy to King Seleucus, reveals to Europe in colorful detail the wonders of Mauryan India: an opulent society with abundant agriculture, engineered irrigation and 7 castes: philosophers, farmers, soldiers, herdsmen, artisans, magistrates and counselors.

ca -300: Chinese discover cast iron, known in Europe by 1300 ce.

ca -300: Pancharatra Vaishnava sect is prominent. All later Vaishnava sects are based on the Pancharatra beliefs (formalized by Shandilya around 100 ce).

ca -300: Pandya kingdom (-300-1700 ce) of S. India is founded, constructs magnificent Minakshi temple at its capital, Madurai. Builds temples of Shrirangam and Rameshvaram, with its thousand-pillared hall (ca 1600 ce).

-297: Emperor Chandragupta abdicates to become a Jain monk.

-273: Ashoka (-273-232 reign), greatest Mauryan Emperor, grandson of Chandragupta, is coronated. Repudiating conquest through violence after his brutal invasion of Kalinga, 260 bce, he converts to Buddhism. Excels at public works and sends diplomatic peace missions to Persia, Syria, Egypt, North Africa and Crete, and Buddhist missions to Sri Lanka, China and other Southeast Asian countries. Under his influence, Buddhism becomes a world power. His work and teachings are preserved in Rock and Pillar Edicts (e.g., lion capital of the pillar at Sarnath, present-day India’s national emblem).

-251: Emperor Ashoka sends his son Mahendra (-270-204) to spread Buddhism in Sri Lanka, where he is to this day revered as the national faith’s founding missionary.

ca -250: Lifetime of Maharishi Nandinatha, first known satguru in the Kailasa Parampara of the Nandinatha Sampradaya. His eight disciples are Sanatkumar, Shanakar, Sanadanar, Sananthanar, Sivayogamuni, Patanjali, Vyaghrapada and Tirumular (Sundaranatha).

ca -221: Great Wall of China is built, ultimately 2,600 miles long, the only man-made object visible from the moon.

ca -200: Lifetime of Rishi Tirumular, shishya of Maharishi Nandinatha and author of the 3,047-verse Tirumantiram, a summation of Saiva Agamas and Vedas, and concise articulation of the Nandinatha Sampradaya teachings, founding South India’s monistic Saiva Siddhanta school.

ca -200: Lifetime of Patanjali, shishya of Nandinatha and gurubhai (brother monk) of Rishi Tirumular. He writes the Yoga Sutras at Chidambaram, in South India.

ca -200: Lifetime of Bhogar Rishi, one of eighteen Tamil siddhas. This mystic shapes from nine poisons the Palaniswami murti enshrined in present-day Palani Hills temple in South India. Bhogar is either from China or visits there.

ca -200: Lifetime of Saint Tiruvalluvar, poet-weaver who lived near present-day Madras, author of Tirukural, “Holy Couplets,” the classic Tamil work on ethics and statecraft (sworn on in today’s South Indian law courts).

ca -200: Jaimini writes the Mimamsa Sutras.

ca -150: Ajanta Buddhist Caves are begun near present-day Hyderabad. Construction of the 29 monasteries and galleries continues until approximately 650 ce. The famous murals are painted between 600 bce and 650 ce.

-145: Chola Empire (-145-1300 ce) of Tamil Nadu is founded, rising from modest beginnings to a height of government organization and artistic accomplishment, including the development of enormous irrigation works.

-140: Emperor Wu begins three-year reign of China; worship of the Mother Goddess, Earth, attains importance.

-130: Reign ends of Menander (Milinda), Indo-Greek king who converts to Buddhism.

-58: Vikrama Samvat Era Hindu calendar begins.

-50: Kushana Empire begins (-50-220 ce). This Mongolian Buddhist dynasty rules most of the Indian subcontinent, Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia.

ca -10: Ilangovadikal, son of King Cheralathan of the Tamil Sangam age, writes the outstanding epic Silappathikaram, classical Tamil treatise on music and dance.

Western Calendar Begins. C.E. – Common Era

-4: Jesus of Nazareth (-4-30 ce), founder of Christianity, is born in Bethlehem (current Biblical scholarship).

10: World population is 170 million. India population is 35 million: 20.5% of world.

ca 50: South Indians occupy Funan, Indochina. Kaundinya, an Indian brahmin, is first king. Shaivism is the state religion.

53: Legend records Saint Thomas’ death in Madras, one of the twelve Apostles of Christ and founder of the Church of the Syrian Malabar Christians (Syrian Rite) in Goa.

ca 60: Buddhism is introduced in China by Emperor Ming Di (reign: 58-76) after he converts to the faith. Brings two monks from India who erect temple at modern Honan.

ca 75: A Gujarat prince named Ajishaka invades Java.

78: Shaka Hindu calendar begins.

ca 80: Jains divide, on points of rules for monks, into the Shvetambara, “white-clad,” and the Digambara, “sky-clad.”

ca 80-180: Lifetime of Charaka. Court physician of the Kushan king, he formulates a code of conduct for doctors of ayurveda and writes Charaka Samhita, a manual of medicine.

ca 100: Lifetime of Shandilya, first systematic promulgator of the ancient Pancharatra doctrines, whose Bhakti Sutras, devotional aphorisms on Vishnu, inspire a Vaishnava renaissance. The Samhita of Shandilya and his followers, the Pancharatra Agama, embody the chief doctrines of present-day Vaishnavas. By the 10th century the popular sect leaves permanent mark on many Hindu schools.

100: Zhang Qian of China establishes trade routes to India and as far west as Rome, later known as the “Silk Roads.”

105: Paper is invented in China.

117: The Roman Empire reaches its greatest extent.

125: Shatakarni (ca 106-130 reign) of Andhra’s Satavahana

(-70-225) dynasty destroys Shaka kingdom of Gujarat.

ca 175: Greek astronomer Ptolemy, known as Asura Maya in India, explains solar astronomy, Surya Siddhanta, to Indian students of the science of the stars.

180: Mexican city of Teotihuacan has 100,000 population and covers 11 square miles. Grows to 250,000 by 500 ce.

ca 200: Lifetime of Lakulisha, famed guru who leads a reformist movement within Pashupata Saivism.

ca 200: Hindu kingdoms established in Cambodia and Malaysia.

205-270: Lifetime of Plotinus, Egyptian-born monistic Greek philosopher and religious genius who transforms a revival of Platonism in the Roman Empire into what present-day scholars call Neoplatonism, which greatly influences Islamic and European thought. He teaches ahimsa, vegetarianism, karma, reincarnation and belief in a Supreme Being, both immanent and transcendent.

ca 250: Pallava dynasty (ca 250-885) is established in Tamil Nadu, responsible for building Kailasa Kamakshi Temple complex at their capital of Kanchi and the great 7th-century stone monuments at Mahabalipuram.

ca 275: Buddhist monastery Mahavihara is founded in Anuradhapura, capital of Sri Lanka.

350: Imperial Gupta dynasty (320-540) flourishes. During this “Classical Age” norms of literature, art, architecture and philosophy are established. This North Indian empire promotes Vaishnavism and Saivism and, at its height, rules or receives tribute from nearly all India. Buddhism also thrives under tolerant Gupta rule.

ca 350: Lifetime of Kalidasa, the great Sanskrit poet and dramatist, author of Shakuntala and Meghaduta. (The traditional date, offered by Prof. Subash Kak, is 50 bce.)

ca 350: Licchavi dynasty (ca 350-900) establishes Hindu rule in Nepal. Small kingdom becomes the major intellectual and commercial center between South and Central Asia.

358: Huns, excellent archers and horsemen possibly of Turkish origin, invade Europe from the East.

375: Maharaja Chandragupta II Vikramaditya, greatest Hindu monarch, reigns to 413, expanding the prosperous Gupta empire northward beyond the Indus River.

391: Roman Emperor Theodosius destroys Greek Hellenistic temples in favor of Christianity.

ca 400: Laws of Manu (Manu Dharma Shastras) written. Its 2,685 verses codify cosmogony, four ashramas, government, domestic affairs, caste and morality (others date at -600).

ca 400: Polynesians sailing in open outrigger canoes reach as far as Hawaii and Easter Island.

ca 400: Shaturanga, Indian forerunner of chess, has evolved from Ashtapada, a board-based race game, into a four-handed war game played with a die. Later, in deference to the Laws of Manu, which forbid gambling, players discard the die and create Shatranj, a two-sided strategy game.

ca 400: Vatsyayana writes Kamasutra, famous text on erotics.

419: Moche people of Peru build a Sun temple 150 feet high using 50 million bricks.

438-45: Council of Ferrara-Florence, Italy, strengthens Roman Catholic stance against doctrine of reincarnation.

ca 440: Ajanta cave frescoes (long before Islam) depict Buddha as Prince Siddhartha, wearing “chudidara pyjama” and a prototype of the present-day “Nehru shirt.”

450-535: Life of Bodhidharma of South India, 28th patriarch of India’s Dhyana Buddhist sect, founder of Ch’an Buddhism in China (520), known as Zen in Japan.

ca 450: Hephtalite invasions (ca 450-565) take a great toll in North India. These “white Huns” (or Hunas) from China are probably not related to Europe’s Hun invaders.

ca 450: As the Gupta Empire declines, Indian sculptural style evolves and continues until the 16th century. The trend is away from the swelling modeled forms of the Gupta period toward increasing flatness and linearity.

453: Attila the Hun dies after lifetime of plundering Europe.

499: Aryabhata I (476-ca 550), Indian astronomer and mathematician, using Hindu (aka Arabic) numerals accurately calculates pi () to 3.1416, and the solar year to 365.3586805 days. A thousand years before Copernicus, Aryabhata propounds a heliocentric universe with elliptically orbiting planets and a spherical Earth spinning on its axis, explaining the apparent rotation of the heavens. Writes Aryabhatiya, history’s first exposition on plane and spherical trigonometry, algebra and arithmetic.

ca 500: Mahavamsa, chronicling Sri Lankan history from -500 is written in Pali, probably by Buddhist monk Mahanama. A sequel, Chulavamsha, continues the history to 1500.

ca 500: Sectarian folk traditions are revised, elaborated and reduced to writing as the Puranas, Hinduism’s encyclopedic compendium of culture and mythology.

500: World population is 190 million. India population is 50 million: 26.3% of world.

510: Hephtalite Mihirakula from beyond Oxus River crushes imperial Gupta power. Soon controls much of N.C. India.

ca 533: Yashovarman of Malva and Ishanavarman of Kanauj defeat and expel the Hephtalites from North India.

ca 543: Pulakeshin I founds Chalukya Dynasty (ca 543-757; 975-1189) in Gujarat and later in larger areas of West India.

548: Emperor Kimmei officially recognizes Buddhism in Japan by accepting a gift image of Buddha from Korea.

553: Council of Constantinople II denies doctrine of soul’s existence before conception, implying reincarnation is incompatible with Christian belief.

565: The Turks and Persians defeat the Hephtalites.

570-632: Lifetime of Mohammed, preacher of the Quraysh Bedoin tribe, founder of Islam. Begins to preach in Mecca, calling for an end to the “demons and idols” of Arab religion and conversion to the ways of the one God, Allah.

ca 590-671: Lifetime of Saiva saint Nayanar Tirunavukkarasu, born into a farmer family at Amur, now in South Arcot, Tamil Nadu. He writes 312 songs, totalling 3,066 Tirumurai verses. Cleaning the grounds of every temple he visits, he exemplifies truly humble service to Lord Siva. His contemporary, the child-saint Nayanar Sambandar, addresses him affectionately as Appar, “father.”

ca 598-665: Lifetime of Brahmagupta, preeminent Indian astronomer, who writes on gravity and sets forth the Hindu astronomical system in his Brahma Sphuta Siddhanta. Two of 25 chapters are on sophisticated mathematics.

ca 600: Religiously tolerant Pallava King Narasinhavarman builds China Pagoda, a Buddhist temple, at the Nagapatam port for Chinese merchants and visiting monks.

ca 610: Muhammed begins prophecies, flees to Mecca in 622.

ca 600-900: Twelve Vaishnava Alvar saints of Tamil Nadu flourish, writing 4,000 songs and poems (assembled in their cannon Nalayira Divya Prabandham) praising Narayana, Rama and narrating the love of Krishna and the gopis.

ca 600: Life of Banabhatta, Shakta master of Sanskrit prose, author of Harshacharita (story of Harsha) and Kadambari.

606: Buddhist Harshavardhana, reigning 606-644, establishes first great kingdom after the Hephtalite invasions, eventually ruling all India to the Narmada River in the South.

ca 630: Vagbhata writes Ashtanga Sangraha on ayurveda.

630-34: Chalukya Pulakeshin II becomes Lord of South India by defeating Harshavardhana, Lord of the North.

630-44: Chinese pilgrim Hiuen-Tsang (Huan Zang) travels in India, recording voluminous observations. Population of Varanasi is 10,000, mostly Saiva. Nalanda Buddhist university (his biographer writes) has 10,000 residents, including 1,510 teachers, and thousands of manuscripts.

641-45: Arab Muslims conquer Mesopotamia, Egypt and Persia.

ca 650: Lifetime of Nayanar Saiva saint Tirujnana Sambandar. Born a brahmin in Tanjavur, he writes 384 songs totalling 4,158 verses that make up the first three books of Tirumurai. At 16, he disappears into the sanctum of Nallur temple, near Tiruchi, Tamil Nadu.

ca 650: More than 60 Chinese monks have traveled to India and her colonies. Four hundred Sanskrit works have been translated into Chinese, 380 survive to the present day.

686-705: Reign of Pallava King Rajasinha. He inherits the stone-carving legacy of Emperor Mahendra and his son, Narasinha, who began the extensive sculptural art in the thriving sea-port of Mahabalipuram.

ca 700: Over the next 100 years the Indonesian island of Bali receives Hinduism from its neighbor, Java.

712: Muslims conquer Sind region (Pakistan), providing base for pillaging expeditions that drain North India’s wealth.

732: French prevent Muslim conquest of Europe, stopping Arabs at Poitiers, France, the NW limit of Arab penetration.

739: Chalukya armies beat back Arab Muslim invasions at Navasari in modern Maharashtra.

ca750-1159: Pala dynasty arises in Bihar and Bengal, last royal patrons of Buddhism, which they help establish in Tibet.

ca 750: Kailasa temple is carved out of a hill of rock at Ellora.

ca 750: Hindu astronomer and mathematician travels to Baghdad, with Brahmagupta’s Brahma Siddhanta (treatise on astronomy) which he translates into Arabic, bestowing decimal notation and use of zero on Arab world.

ca 750: Lifetime of Bhavabhuti, Sanskrit dramatist, second only to Kalidasa. Writes Malati Madhava, a Shakta work.

ca 750: Valmiki writes 29,000-verse Yoga Vasishtha.

ca 750: A necklace timepiece, kadikaram in Tamil, is worn by an Emperor (according to scholar M. Arunachalam).

788: Adi Shankara (788-820) is born in Malabar, famous monk philosopher of Smarta tradition who writes mystic poems and scriptural commentaries including Viveka Chudamani, and regularizes ten monastic orders called Dashanami. Preaches Mayavada Advaita, emphasizing the world as illusion and God as the sole Reality.

ca 800: Bhakti revival curtails Buddhism in South India. In the North, Buddha is revered as Vishnu’s 9th incarnation.

ca 800: Life of Nammalvar, greatest of Alvar saints. His poems shape the beliefs of Southern Vaishnavas to the present day.

ca 800: Lifetime of Vasugupta, modern founder of Kashmir Saivism, a monistic, meditative school.

ca 800: Lifetime of Auvaiyar, woman saint of Tamil Nadu, great devotee of Lord Ganesha and author of Auvai Kural. She is associated with the Lambika kundalini school. (A second date for Auvaiyar of 200 bce is from a story about Auvaiyar and Saint Tiruvalluvar as siblings. A third Auvaiyar reference is dated at approximately 1000. (Auvaiyar is a Tamil word meaning “old, learned woman;” some believe it may refer to three different persons.)

ca 800: Lifetime of Karaikkal Ammaiyar, one of the 63 Saiva saints of Tamil Nadu. Her mystical and yogic hymns, preserved in the Tirumurai, remain popular to the present day.

ca 825: Nayanar Tamil saint Sundarar is born into a family of Adishaiva temple priests in Tirunavalur in present-day South Arcot. His 100 songs in praise of Siva (the only ones surviving of his 38,000 songs) make up Tirumurai book 7. His Tiru Tondattohai poem, naming the Saiva saints, is the basis for Saint Sekkilar’s Periyapuranam.

ca 800: Lifetime of Andal, woman saint of Tamil Nadu. Writes devotional poetry to Lord Krishna, disappears at age 16.

ca 825: Vasugupta discovers the rock-carved Siva Sutras.

846: Vijayalaya reestablishes his Chola dynasty, which over the next 100 years grows and strengthens into one of the greatest South Indian Empires ever known.

ca 850: Shri Vaishnava sect established in Tamil Nadu by Acharya Nathamuni, forerunner of great theologian Ramanuja.

ca 850: Life of Manikkavasagar, Saiva Samayacharya saint, born in Tiruvadavur, near Madurai, into a Tamil brahmin family. Writes famed Tiruvasagam, 51 poems of 656 verses in 3,394 lines, chronicling the soul’s evolution to God Siva. Tirupalli-eluchi and Tiruvembavai are classic examples of his innovative style of devotional songs.

875: Muslim conquests extend from Spain to Indus Valley.

885: Cholas kill Aparajita, king of the Pallavas, in battle.

ca 900: Lifetime of Matsyendranatha, exponent of the Natha sect emphasizing kundalini yoga practices.

ca 900: Under the Hindu Malla dynasty (ca 900-1700) of Nepal, legal and social codes influenced by Hinduism are introduced. Nepal is broken into several principalities.

ca 900-1001: Lifetime of Sembiyan Ma Devi, queen of Maharaja Gandaraditta Chola from 950-957 and loyal patron of Saivism, builds ten temples and inspires and molds her grand-nephew prince, son of Sundara Chola, into the great temple-builder, Emperor Rajaraja I.

900: Mataramas dynasty in Indonesia reverts to Saivism after a century of Buddhism, building 150 Saiva temples.

ca 950: Lifetime of Gorakshanatha, Natha yogi who founds the order of Kanphatha Yogis and Gorakshanatha Saivism, the philosophical school called Siddha Siddhanta.

ca 950-1015: Lifetime of Kashmir Saiva guru Abhinavagupta.

960: Chola King Vira, after having a vision of Siva Nataraja dancing, commences enlargement of the Siva temple at Chidambaram, including the construction of the gold-roofed shrine. The enlargement is completed in 1250 ce.

985: Rajaraja I (reign 985-1014) ascends the South Indian Chola throne and ushers in a new age of temple architecture exemplified at Tanjavur, Darasuram, Tirubhuvanam and Chidambaram. Pallava architectural influences (dominant vimanas, inconspicuous gopuras) fade.

ca 1000: Gorakshanatha writes Siddha Siddhanta Paddhati, “Tracks on the Doctrines of the Adepts.” The nature of God and universe, structure of chakras, kundalini force and methods for realization are explained in 353 verses.

1000ce to 1500

1000: World population is 265 million. India population is 79 million, 29.8% of world.

ca 1000: A few Hindu communities from Rajasthan, Sindh and other areas, the ancestors of present-day Romani, or Gypsies, gradually move to Persia and on to Europe.

ca 1000: Vikings reach North America, landing in Nova Scotia.

ca 1000: Polynesians arrive in New Zealand, last stage in the greatest migration and navigational feat in history, making them the most widely-spread race on Earth.

1001: Turkish Muslims sweep through the Northwest under Mahmud of Ghazni, defeating Jayapala of Hindu Shahi Dynasty of S. Afghanisthan and Punjab at Peshawar. This is the first major Muslim conquest in India.

ca 1010: Tirumurai, Tamil devotional hymns of Saiva saints, is collected as an anthology by Nambiandar Nambi.

1017: Mahmud of Ghazni sacks Mathura, birthplace of Lord Krishna, and establishes a mosque on the site during one of his 17 Indian invasions for holy war and plunder.

1017-1137: Life of Ramanuja of Kanchipuram, Tamil philosopher-saint of Shri Vaishnava sect that continues bhakti tradition of S. Indian Alvar saints. His strongly theistic nondual Vishishtadvaita Vedanta philosophy restates Pancharatra tradition. Foremost opponent of Shankara’s system, he dies at age 120 while head of Shrirangam monastery.

1018-1060: Lifetime of Bhojadeva Paramara, Gujarati king, poet, artist and monistic Saiva Siddhanta theologian.

1024: Mahmud of Ghazni plunders Somanath Siva temple, destroying the Linga and killing 50,000 Hindu defenders. He later builds a mosque on the remaining walls.

1025: Chola ruler Maharaja Rajendra I sends victorious naval expeditions to Burma, Malaysia and Indonesia, initiating decline of Mahayana Buddhist empire of Shrivijaya.

ca 1040: Chinese invent the compass and moveable type and perfect the use of gunpowder, first invented and used in India as an explosive mixture of saltpetre, sulfur and charcoal to power guns, cannons and artillery.

ca 1050: Lifetime of Shrikantha, promulgator of Siva Advaita, a major philosophical school of Saivism.

ca 1130-1200: Lifetime of Nimbarka, Telegu founder of the Vaishnava Nimandi sect holding the philosophy of dvaitadvaita, dual-nondualism. He introduces the worship of Krishna together with consort Radha. (Present-day Nimavats revere Vishnu Himself, in the form of the Hamsa Avatara, as the originator of their sect.)

ca 1130: Lifetime of Sekkilar, Tamil chief minister under Chola Emperor Kulottunga II (reign 1133-1150) and author of Periyapuranam, 4,286-verse epic biography (hagiography) of the 63 Saiva saints and 12th book of Tirumurai.

ca 1150: Life of Basavanna, renaissance guru of the Vira Saiva sect, stressing free will, equality, service to humanity and worship of the Sivalinga worn around the neck.

ca 1150: Khmer ruler Suryavarman II completes Angkor Wat temple (in present-day Cambodia), where his body is later entombed and worshiped as an embodiment of Vishnu. This largest Hindu temple in Asia is 12 miles in circumference, with a 200-foot high central tower.

ca 1162: Mahadevi is born, female Saiva ascetic saint of Karnataka, writes 350 majestic and mystical poems.

1175: Toltec Empire of Mexico crumbles.

1185: Mohammed of Ghur conquers Punjab and Lahore.

1191: Eisai founds Rinzai Zen sect in Japan after study in China.

1193: Qutb ud-Din Aybak founds first Muslim Sultanate of Delhi, establishing the Mamluk Dynasty (1193-1290).

1197: Great Buddhist university of Nalanda is destroyed by Muslim Ikhtiyar ud-din.

1200: All of North India is under Muslim domination.

1200: India population reaches 80 million.

ca 1200: An unknown author writes Yoga Yajnavalkya.

1215: King John is forced to sign the Magna Carta, giving greater rights to citizens in England.

1227: Mongolian Emperor Genghis Khan, conqueror of a vast area from Beijing, China, to Iran and north of Tibet, the largest empire the world has yet seen, dies.

1230-60: Surya temple at Konarak, Orissa, India, is constructed.

1238-1317: Lifetime of Ananda Tirtha, Madhva, venerable Vaishnava dualist and opponent of Shankara’s mayavadin advaita philosophy. He composes 37 works and founds Dvaita Vedanta school, the Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya and its eight monasteries, ashtamatha, in Udupi.

ca 1250: Lifetime of Meykandar, Saiva saint who founds the Meykandar school of pluralistic Saiva Siddhanta, of which his 12-sutra Sivajnanabodham becomes its core scripture.

1260: Meister Eckhart, the German mystic, is born.

1268-1369: Lifetime of Vedanta Deshikar, gifted Tamil scholar and poet who founds sect of Vaishnavism called Vadakalai, headquartered at Kanchipuram.

1270-1350: Lifetime of Namadeva, foremost poet saint of Maharashtra’s Varkari (“pilgrim”) Vaishnava school, disciple of Jnanadeva. He and his family compose a million verses in praise of Lord Vithoba (Vishnu).

1272: Marco Polo visits India en route to China.

1274: Council of Lyons II declares that souls go immediately to heaven, purgatory or hell; interpreted by Catholic fathers as condemning the doctrine of reincarnation.

1275-96: Lifetime of Jnanadeva, Natha-trained Vaishnava saint, founder of the Varkari school, who writes Jnaneshvari, a Marathi verse commentary on Bhagavad Gita, which becomes Maharashtra’s most popular book.

1279: Muktabai is born, Maharashtrian Varkari saint and Natha yogini, writes 100 sacred verses.

1280: Mongol (Yuen) dynasty (1280-1368) begins in China, under which occurs the last of much translation work into Chinese from Sanskrit.

1296: Ala-ud-din, second king of Khalji dynasty, rules most of India after his General Kafur conquers the South, extending Muslim dominion to Rameshwaram.

ca 1300: Lifetime of Janabai, Maharashtrian Varkari Vaishnava woman saint who writes a portion of Namadeva’s million verses to Vithoba (Vishnu).

ca 1300: The Ananda Samucchaya is written, 277 stanzas on hatha yoga, with discussion of the chakras and the nadis.

1300: Muslim conquerors reach Cape Comorin at the southernmost tip of India and build a mosque there.

1317-72: Life of Lalla of Kashmir. Saiva renunciate, mystic poetess contributes significantly to the Kashmiri language.

1336: Vijayanagara Empire (1336-1565-1646) of South India is founded. European visitors are overwhelmed by the wealth and advancement of its 17-square-mile capital.

1345: Aztecs establish great civilization in Mexico.

1346-90: Life of Krittivasa, translator of Ramayana into Bengali.

1347: Plague called the Black Death spreads rapidly, killing 75 million worldwide before it recedes in 1351.

ca 1350: Svatmarama writes Hatha Yoga Pradipika.

ca 1350: Lifetime of Appaya Dikshita, South Indian philosoper saint whose writings reconcile Vaishnavism and Saivism. He advances Siva Advaita and other Saiva schools and compiles a temple priests’ manual still used today.

1398: Tamerlane (Timur) invades India with 90,000 cavalry and sacks Delhi because its Muslim Sultanate is too tolerant of Hindu idolatry. A Mongolian follower of Sufism, he is one of the most ruthless of all conquerors.

1399: Hardwar, Ganga pilgrimage town, is sacked by Timur.

ca 1400: Goraksha Upanishad is written.

1414: Hindu prince Parameshvara of Malaysia converts to Islam.

1414-80: Life of Gujarati Vaishnava poet-saint Narasinha Mehta.

1415: Bengali poet-singer Baru Chandidas writes Shrikrishnakirtana, a collection of exquisite songs praising Krishna.

1429: Joan of Arc, age 17, leads the French to victory over the English.

ca 1433: China cloisters itself from outside world by banning further voyages to the West. (First bamboo curtain.)

1440-1518: Lifetime of Kabir, Vaishnava reformer with who has both Muslim and Hindu followers. (His Hindi songs remain immensely popular to the present day.)

ca 1440: Johannes Gutenberg (ca 1400-1468) invents the West’s first moveable-type printing press in Germany.

1450?-1547: Lifetime of Mirabai, Vaishnava Rajput princess saint who, married at an early age to the Rana of Udaipur, devotes herself to Krishna and later renounces worldly life to wander India singing to Him beautiful mystic compositions that are sung to the present day.

1469-1538: Lifetime of Guru Nanak, founder of Sikhism, originally a reformist Hindu sect stressing devotion, faith in the guru, repetition of God’s name and rejection of renunciation and caste. (Most Sikhs in the present day consider themselves members of a separate religion.)

1478: Spanish Inquisition begins. Over the next 20 years, Christians burn several thousand persons at the stake.

1479-1531: Lifetime of Vallabhacharya, a married Telegu brahmin saint who teaches pushtimarga, “path of love,” and a lofty nondual philosophy, Shuddhadvaita Vedanta, in which souls are eternally one with Brahman. Vallabhacharya’s Vaishnavism worships Krishna in the form of Shri Nathji.

1483-1563: Lifetime of Surdas, sightless Hindi bard of Agra, whose hymns to Krishna are compiled in the Sursagar.

1486-1543: Life of Chaitanya, Bengali founder of popular Vaishnava sect which proclaims Krishna Supreme God and emphasizes sankirtan, group chanting and dancing.

1492: Looking for India, Christopher Columbus lands on San Salvador island in the Caribbean, thus “discovering” the Americas and proving that the earth is round, not flat.

1498: Portugal’s Vasco da Gama sails around Cape of Good Hope to Calicut, Kerala, first European to find sea route to India.

ca 1500: Life of Arunagirinathar, Tamil saint, author of Tiruppugal hymns; emphasizes feeding the hungry during a time of Muslim oppression and disrupted family life.

ca 1500: Buddhist and Saiva Hindu princes are forced off Java by invading Muslims. They resettle on neighboring Bali, with their overlapping priesthoods and vast royal courts: poets, dancers, musicians and artisans. Within 100 years they construct what many call a fairytale kingdom.

1500 to 1800ce

1500: World population 425 million; 105 million live in India.

1503-1566: Lifetime of Nostradamus, French physician and astrologer who wrote Centuries (1555), a book of prophecies.

1509-1529: Reign of Maharaja Krishnadevaraya of the Vijayanagara Empire in Andhra Pradesh.

1510: Portuguese Catholics conquer Goa to serve as capital of their Asian maritime empire, beginning conquest and exploitation of India by Europeans.

1517: Luther begins Protestant reformation in Europe.

ca 1520: Poet-saint Purandardas (1480-1564) of the Vijayanagara court systematizes Karnatak music.

1526: Mughal conqueror Babur (1483-1530) defeats the Sultan of Delhi and captures the Koh-i-noor diamond. Occupying Delhi, by 1529 he founds the Indian Mughal Empire (1526-1761), consolidated by his grandson Akbar.

1528: Emperor Babur destroys temple at Lord Rama’s birthplace in Ayodhya, erects Muslim masjid, or monument.

1532-1623: Life of Monk-poet Tulasidasa. Writes Ramacharitamanasa (1574-77), greatest medieval Hindi literature (based on Ramayana). It advances Rama worship in the North.

1542: Portuguese Jesuit priest Francis Xavier (1506-1552), most successful Catholic missionary, lands in Goa. First to train and employ native clergy in conversion efforts, he brings Christianity to India, Malay Archipelago and Japan.

1544-1603: Life of Dadu, ascetic saint of Gujarat, founder of Dadupantha, which is guided by his Bani poems in Hindi.

1556: Akbar (1542-1605), grandson of Babur, becomes third Mughal Emperor at age 13. Disestablishes Islam as state religion and declares himself impartial ruler of Hindus and Muslims; encourages art, culture, religious tolerance.

1565: Muslim forces defeat and completely destroy the city of Vijayanagara. Empire’s final collapse comes in 1646.

1565: Polish astronomer Copernicus’ (1473-1543) Heliocentric system, in which the Earth orbits the sun, gains popularity in Europe among astronomers and mathematicians.

1569: Akbar captures fortress of Ranthambor, ending Rajput independence. Soon controls nearly all of Rajasthan.

ca 1570: Ekanatha (1533-99), Varkari Vaishnava saint and mystic composer, edits Jnanadeva’s Jnaneshvari and translates Bhagavata Purana, advancing Marathi language.

1588: British ships defeat the Spanish Armada off the coast of Calais, France, to become rulers of the high seas.

1589: Akbar rules half of India, shows tolerance for all faiths.

1595: Construction is begun on Chidambaram Temple’s Hall of a Thousand Pillars in South India, completed in 1685.

ca 1600: “Persian wheel” to lift water by oxen is adopted, one of few farming innovations since Indus Valley civilization.

1600: Royal Charter forms the East India Company, setting in motion a process that ultimately results in the subjugation of India under British rule.

1603-4: Guru Arjun compiles Adi Granth, Sikh scripture.

1605: Akbar the Great dies at age 63. His son Jahangir succeeds him as fourth Mughal Emperor.

1605: Sikh Golden Temple (Harimandir) at Amritsar, Punjab, is finished, completely covered with gold leaf.

1608-49: Lifetime of Tukaram, beloved Varkari sant famed for his abhangas, “unbroken hymns,” to Krishna. Considered greatest Marathi spiritual composer.

1608-81: Lifetime of Ramdas, mystic poet, Sivaji’s guru, Marathi saint, who gives Hindus the dhvaja, saffron flag.

1610: Galileo of Italy (1564-1642) perfects the telescope, with which he confirms the Copernican theory. Condemned a heretic by the Catholic Inquisition for his discoveries.

1613-14: British East India Company sets up trading post at Surat.

1615-18: Mughals grant Britain right to trade and establish factories in exchange for English navy’s protection of the Mughal Empire, which faces Portuguese sea power.

1619: Jaffna kingdom is annexed and Sri Lanka’s ruling dynasty deposed by Portuguese Catholics who, between 1505 and 1658, destroy most of the island’s Hindu temples.

1619: First black slaves from Africa are sold in the USA.

1620: European pilgrims land and settle at Plymouth Rock, US.

1627-80: Life of Sivaji, valiant general and tolerant founder of Hindu Maratha Empire (1674-1818). Emancipates large areas confiscated by Muslims, returning them to Hindu control. First Indian ruler to build a major naval force.

ca 1628-88: Lifetime of Kumaraguruparar, prolific poet-saint of Tamil Nadu who founds monastery in Varanasi to propound Saiva Siddhanta philosophy.

1630: Over the next two years, millions starve to death as Shah Jahan (1592-1666), fifth Mughal Emperor, empties the royal treasury to buy jewels for his “Peacock Throne.”

1647: Shah Jahan completes Taj Mahal in Agra beside Yamuna River. Its construction has taken 20,000 laborers 15 years, at a total cost equivalence of US$25 million.

1649: Red Fort is completed in Delhi by Shah Jahan.

ca 1650: Dharmapuram Aadheenam, Saiva monastery, founded near Mayuram, South India, by Guru Jnanasambandar.

ca 1650: Robert de Nobili (1577-1656), Portuguese Jesuit missionary noted for fervor and intolerance, arrives in Madurai, declares himself a brahmin, dresses like a Hindu monk and composes Veda-like scripture extolling Jesus.

ca 1650: Two yoga classics, Siva Samhita and Gheranda Samhita, are written.

1654: A Tamil karttanam is written and sung to celebrate recovery installation of Tiruchendur’s Murugan murti.

1658: Zealous Muslim Aurangzeb (1618-1707) becomes Mughal Emperor. His discriminatory policies toward Hindus, Marathas and the Deccan kingdoms contribute to the dissolution of the Mughal Empire by 1750.

1660: Frenchman Francois Bernier reports India’s peasantry is living in misery under Mughal rule.

1664: Great Plague of London kills 70,000, 15% of the population.

1675: Aurangzeb executes Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur, beginning the Sikh-Muslim feud that continues to this day.

1679: Aurangzeb levies Jizya tax on non-believers, Hindus.

1688: Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb demolishes all temples in Mathura, said to number 1,000. (During their reign, Muslim rulers destroy roughly 60,000 Hindu temples throughout India, constructing mosques on 3,000 sites.)

1700: World population is 610 million. India population is 165 million: 27% of world.

1705-42: Lifetime of Tayumanavar, Tamil Saiva poet saint and devotional yogic philosopher of Tiruchirappalli.

1708: Govind Singh, tenth and last Sikh guru, is assassinated.

1708-37: Jai Singh II builds astronomical observatories in Delhi, Jaipur, Ujjain, Benares and Mathura.

1718-75: Lifetime of Ramprasad, Bengali Shakta poet-saint.

1722: Peter the Great rules in Russia.

ca 1725: Jesuit Father Hanxleden compiles first Sanskrit grammar in a European language.

ca 1750: Shakta songs of Bengali poets Ramprasad Sen and Kamalakanta Bhattacharya glorify Her as loving Mother and Daughter and stimulate a rise in devotional Shaktism.

1751: Robert Clive, age 26, seizes Arcot in modern Tamil Nadu as French and British fight for control of South India.

1760: Saiva sannyasis fight Vaishnava vairagis in tragic battle at Hardwar Kumbha Mela; 18,000 monks are killed.

1760: Eliezer (Besht), liberal founder of Hasidic Judaism, dies.

1761: Afghan army of Ahmad Shah Durrani routs Hindu Maratha forces at Panipat, ending Maratha hegemony in North India. As many as 200,000 Hindus are said to have died in the strategic eight-hour battle.

1764: British defeat the weak Mughal Emperor to become rulers of Bengal, richest province of India.

1769: Prithivi Narayan Shah, ruler of Gorkha principality, conquers Nepal Valley; moves capital to Kathmandu, establishing present-day Hindu nation of Nepal.

ca 1770-1840: Life of Rishi from the Himalayas, guru of Kadaitswami and first historically known satguru of the Nandinatha Sampradaya’s Kailasa Parampara since Tirumular.

1773: British East India Company obtains monopoly on the production and sale of opium in Bengal.

ca 1780-1830: Golden era of Karnatik music. Composers include Tyagaraja, Dikshitar and Shastri.

1781: George Washington defeats British at Yorktown, US.

1781-1830: Lifetime of Sahajanandaswami, Gujarati founder of the Swaminarayan sect (with 1.5 million followers today).

1784: Judge and linguist Sir William Jones founds Calcutta’s Royal Asiatic Society. First such scholastic institution.

1786: Sir William Jones uses the Rig Veda term Aryan (“noble”) to name the parent language (now termed Indo-European) of Sanskrit, Greek, Latin and Germanic tongues.

1787-95: British Parliament impeaches Warren Hastings, Governor General of Bengal (1774-85) for misconduct.

1787: British Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade is formed, marking the beginning of the end of slavery.

1789: French revolution begins with storming of the Bastille.

1792: Britain’s Cornwallis defeats Tipu Sahib, Sultan of Mysore and most powerful ruler in South India, main bulwark of resistance to British expansion in India.

1793: Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin in the US, greatly affecting the institution of slavery.

1796: Over two million worshipers compete for sacred Ganga bath at Kumbha Mela in Hardwar. Five thousand Saiva ascetics are killed in tragic clash with Sikh ascetics.

1799: Sultan Tipu is killed in battle against 5,000 British soldiers who storm and raze his capital, Srirangapattinam.

1800ce to the Present and Beyond!

1803: Second Anglo-Maratha war results in British Christian capture of Delhi and control of large parts of India.

1803: India’s population is 200 million.

1803-82: Lifetime of Ralph Waldo Emerson, American poet who helps popularize Bhagavad Gita and Upanishads in US.

1807: Importation of slaves is banned in the US through an act of Congress motivated by Thomas Jefferson.

1809: British strike a bargain with Ranjit Singh for exclusive areas of influence.

ca 1810-75: Lifetime of renaissance guru Kadaitswami, born near Bangalore, sent to Sri Lanka by Rishi from the Himalayas to strengthen Saivism against Catholic incursion.

1812: Napoleon’s army retreats from Moscow. Only 20,000 soldiers survive out of a 500,000-man invasion force.

1814: First practical steam locomotive is built.

1817-92: Lifetime of Bahaullah, Mirza Husayn ‘Ali, founder of Baha’i faith (1863), a major off-shoot religion of Islam.

1818-78: Lifetime of Sivadayal, renaissance founder of the esoteric reformist Radhasoami Vaishnava sect in Agra.

1820: First Indian immigrants arrive in the US.

1822-79: Life of Arumuga Navalar of Jaffna, Sri Lanka, renaissance activist who propounds Advaita Siddhanta, writes first Hindu catechism and translates Bible into Tamil so it can be compared faithfully to the Vedas and Agamas.

1823-74: Life of Ramalingaswami, Tamil saint, renaissance founder of Vadalur’s “Hall of Wisdom for Universal Worship.”

1824-83: Lifetime of Swami Dayananda Sarasvati, renaissance founder of Arya Samaj (1875), Hindu reformist movement stressing a return to the values and practices of the Vedas. Author of Satya Prakash, “Light on Truth.”

1825: First massive immigration of Indian workers from Madras is to Reunion and Mauritius. This immigrant Hindu community builds their first temple in 1854.

1828: Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833) founds Adi Brahmo Samaj in Calcutta, first movement to initiate religio-social reform. Influenced by Islam and Christianity, he denounces polytheism, idol worship; repudiates the Vedas, avataras, karma and reincarnation, caste and more.

1831-91: Lifetime of Russian mystic Madame H.P. Blavatsky, founder of Theosophical Society in 1875, bringing aspects of psychism, Buddhism and Hinduism to the West.

1831: British Christians defeat Ranjit Singh’s forces at Balakot, in Sikh attempt to establish a homeland in N.W. India.

1833: Slavery is abolished in British Commonwealth countries, giving impetus to abolitionists in United States.

1835: Civil service jobs in India are opened to Indians.

1835: Macaulay’s Minute furthers Western education in India. English is made official government and court language.

1835: Mauritius receives 19,000 immigrant indentured laborers from India. Last ship carrying workers arrives in 1922.

1836-86: Lifetime of Shri Ramakrishna, God-intoxicated Bengali Shakta saint, guru of Swami Vivekananda. He exemplifies the bhakti dimension of Shakta Universalism.

1837: Britain formalizes emigration of Indian indentured laborers to supply cheap labor under a system more morally acceptable to British Christian society than slavery, illegal in the British Empire since 1833.

1837: Kali-worshiping Thugees are suppressed by British.

1838: British Guyana receives its first 250 Indian laborers.

1838-84: Lifetime of Keshab Chandra Sen, Hindu reformer who founds Brahma Samaj of India, a radical offshoot of the Adi Brahmo Samaj of Ram Mohan Roy.

1840-1915: Lifetime of Satguru Chellappaswami of Jaffna, Sri Lanka, initiated at age 19 by Siddha Kadaitswami as next satguru in the Nandinatha Sampradaya’s Kailasa Parampara.

1840: Joseph de Goubineau (1816-1882), French scholar, writes The Inequality of Human Races. Proclaims the “Aryan race” superior to other great strains and lays down the aristocratic class-doctrine of Aryanism that later provides the basis for Adolf Hitler’s Aryan racism.

1842-1901: Life of Eknath Ranade, founder of Prarthana Samaj. His social-reform thinking inspires Gokhale and Gandhi.

1843: British conquer the Sind region (present-day Pakistan).

1845: Trinidad receives its first 197 Indian immigrant laborers.

1846: British forcibly separate Kashmir from the Sikhs and sell it to the Maharaja of Jammu for pounds1,000,000.

1849: Sikh army is defeated by the British at Amritsar.

1850: First English translation of the Rig Veda by H.H. Wilson, first holder of Oxford’s Boden Chair, founded “to promote the translation of the Scriptures into English, so as to enable his countrymen to proceed in the conversion of the natives of India to the Christian religion.”

1851: Sir M. Monier-Williams (1819-99) publishes English-Sanskrit Dictionary. His completed Sanskrit-English Dictionary is released in 1899 after three decades of work.

1853-1920: Lifetime of Shri Sharada Devi, wife of Shri Ramakrishna.

1853: Max Muller (1823-1900), German Christian philologist and Orientalist, advocates the term Aryan to name a hypothetical primitive people of Central Asia, the common ancestors of Hindus, Persians and Greeks. Muller speculates that this “Aryan race” divided and marched west to Europe and east to India and China around 1500 bce. Their language, Muller contends, developed into Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, German, etc., and all ancient civilizations descended from this Aryan race.

1856: Catholic missionary Bishop Caldwell coins the term Dravidian to refer to South Indian Caucasian peoples.

1857: First Indian Revolution, called the Sepoy Mutiny, ends in a few months with the fall of Delhi and Lucknow.

1858: India has 200 miles of railroad track. By 1869 5,000 miles of steel track have been completed by British railroad companies. In 1900, total track is 25,000 miles, and by World War I, 35,000 miles. By 1970, at 62,136 miles, it has become the world’s greatest train system. Unfortunately, this development depletes India’s forest lands.

1859: Charles Darwin, releases controversial book, The Origin of Species, propounding his “natural selection” theory of evolution, laying the foundations of modern biology.

1860: S.S. Truro and S.S. Belvedere dock in Durban, S. Africa, carrying first indentured servants (from Madras and Calcutta) to work sugar plantations. With contracts of five years and up, thousands emigrate over next 51 years.

1861: American Civil War begins in Charleston, S. Carolina.

1861-1941: Lifetime of Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore, awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913.

1863-1902: Life of Swami Vivekananda, dynamic renaissance missionary to West and catalyst of Hindu revival in India.

1869-1948: Lifetime of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Indian nationalist and Hindu political activist who develops the strategy of nonviolent disobedience that forces Christian Great Britain to grant independence to India (1947).

1870: Papal doctrine of infallibility is asserted by the Vatican.

1872-1964: Lifetime of Satguru Yogaswami, Natha renaissance sage of Sri Lanka, Chellappaswami’s successor in the Kailasa Parampara of the Nandinatha Sampradaya.

1872-1950: Life of Shri Aurobindo Ghosh, Bengali Indian nationalist and renaissance yoga philosopher. His 30-volume work discusses the “superman,” the Divinely transformed individual soul. Withdraws from the world in 1910 and founds international ashram in Pondicherry.

1873-1906: Lifetime of Swami Rama Tirtha, who lectures throughout Japan and America spreading “practical Vedanta.”

1875: Madame Blavatsky founds Theosophical Society in New York, later headquartered at Adyar, Madras, where Annie Besant, president (1907-1933), helps revitalize Hinduism with metaphysical defense of its principles.

1876: British Queen Victoria (1819-1901), head of Church of England, is proclaimed Empress of India (1876-1901).

1876: Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone.

1876-1990: Max Muller, pioneer of comparative religion as a scholarly discipline, publishes 50-volume Sacred Books of the East, English translations of Indian-Oriental scriptures.

1877-1947: Lifetime of Sri Lanka’s Ananda Coomaraswamy, foremost interpreter of Indian art and culture to the West.

1879: Incandescent lamp is invented by Thomas Edison (1847-1931). The american inventor patents more than a thousand inventions, among them the microphone (1877) and the phonograph (1878). In New York (1881-82) he installs the world’s first central electric power plant.

1879: The “Leonidas,” first emigrant ship to Fiji, adds 498 Indian indentured laborers to the nearly 340,000 already working in other British Empire colonies.

1879-1966: Lifetime of Sadhu T.L. Vaswani, altruistic Sindhi poet and servant of God, founds several Hindu missions in India and seven Mira Educational Institutions.

1879-1950: Lifetime of Shri Ramana Maharshi, Hindu Advaita renunciate renaissance saint of Tiruvannamalai, South India.

1882-1927: Lifetime of Hazrat Inayat Khan, Indian-born Muslim mystic, instrumental in bringing Sufism to the West.

1884-1963: Lifetime of Swami Ramdas, known as “Papa,” Indian saint and devotee of Lord Rama.

1885: A group of middle-class intellectuals in India, some of them British, found the Indian National Congress to be a voice of Indian opinion to the British government. This was the origin of the later Congress Party.

1885: First automobile powered by an internal combustion engine is produced by Karl Benz in Mannheim, Germany. Henry Ford makes his first car in 1893 in the US and later invents assembly line production.

1886: Rene Guenon is born, first European philosopher to become a Vedantin, says biographer Robin Waterfield.

1887-1963: Life of Swami Sivananda, Hindu universalist renaissance guru, author of 200 books, founder of Divine Life Society, with 400 branches worldwide in present day.

1888: Max Muller, revising his stance, writes, “Aryan, in scientific language, is utterly inapplicable to race. If I say Aryas, I mean neither blood nor bones, nor hair nor skull; I mean simply those who spoke the Aryan language.”

1888-1975: Lifetime of Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, renowned Tamil panentheist, renaissance philosopher, eminent writer; free India’s first vice-president and second president.

1891: Maha Bodhi Society, an organization to encourage Buddhist studies in India and abroad, is founded in Sri Lanka by Buddhist monk Anagarika Dharmapala.

1893: Swami Vivekananda represents Hinduism at Chicago’s Parliament of the World’s Religions, first ever interfaith gathering, dramatically enlightening Western opinion as to the profundity of Hindu philosophy and culture.

1893-1952: Life of Paramahamsa Yogananda, universalist Hindu, renaissance founder of Self Realization Fellowship (1925) in US, author of famed Autobiography of a Yogi (1946), popular book globalizing India’s spiritual traditions.

1894: Gandhi drafts first petition protesting the indentured servant system. Less than six months later, British announce the halt of indentured emigration from India.

1894-1994: Lifetime of Swami Chandrashekarendra, venerated Shankaracharya saint of Kanchi monastery in South India.

1894-1969: Life of Meher Baba of Poona, silent sage whose mystical teachings stress love, self-inquiry and God consciousness.

1896-1982: Lifetime of Anandamayi Ma, God-intoxicated yogini and mystic Bengali saint. Her spirit lives on in devotees.

1896: Nationalist leader, Marathi scholar Bal Bangadhar Tilak (1857-1920) initiates Ganesha Visarjana and Sivaji festivals to fan Indian nationalism. He is first to demand complete independence, Purna Svaraj, from Britain.

1896-1977: Lifetime of Vaishnava Hindu renaissance activist Bhaktivedanta Swami Pradhupada. Founds Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) in US in 1966. Dies 11 years later.

1896: American humorist Mark Twain writes Following the Equator, describing his three-month stay in India, during voyage to Hawaii, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, Sri Lanka, Mauritius, South Africa and England. According to him and his critics, it is one of his finest works.

1897: Swami Vivekananda founds Ramakrishna Mission.

1898-1907: Cholera epidemic claims 370,000 lives in India.

1900: World population is 1.6 billion. India population is 290 million: 17.8% of world.

1900: India’s tea exports to Britain reach 137 million pounds.

1900-77: Uday Shankar of Udaipur, dancer and choreographer, adapts Western theatrical techniques to Hindu dance, popularizing his ballet in India, Europe and the US.

1905: Lord Curzon, arrogant British Viceroy of India, resigns.

1905: Sage Yogaswami, age 33, is initiated by Chellappaswami at Nallur, Sri Lanka; later becomes the next preceptor in the Nandinatha Sampradaya’s Kailasa Parampara.

1906: Muslim League political party is formed in India.

1906: Dutch Christians overtake Bali after Puputan massacres in which Hindu Balinese royal families are murdered.

1908-82: Lifetime of Swami Muktananda, global Kashmir Saiva renaissance satguru and founder of Siddha Yoga Dham.

1909-69: Lifetime of Dada Lekhraj (1909-1969), Hindu renaissance founder of Brahma Kumaris, Saivite social reform movement stressing meditation and world peace.

1909: Gandhi and assistant Maganlal agitate for better working conditions and abolition of indentured servitude in S. Africa. Maganlal continues Gandhi’s work in Fiji.

1912: Anti-Indian racial riots on the US West Coast expel large Hindu immigrant population.

1913: New law prohibits Indian immigration to S. Africa, primarily in answer to white colonists’ alarm at competition of Indian merchants and expired labor contracts.

1914: US government excludes Indian citizens from immigration. Restriction stands until 1965.

1914: Austria’s Archduke Ferdinand is assassinated by Christian Serb nationalists. Chain reaction leads to W.W. I.

1914: Swami Satchidananda is born, founder of Integral Yoga Institute and Light of Truth Universal Shrine in the US.

1917: Communists under Lenin seize power in Russia, 1/6th of the Earth’s land mass, following the Bolshevik Revolution.

1917: Last Hindu Indian indentured laborers are brought to British Christian colonies of Fiji and Trinidad.

1917-93: Life of Swami Chinmayananda, Vedantist writer, lecturer, Hindu renaissance founder of Chinmaya Mission and a co-founder of the Vishva Hindu Parishad.

1918: World War I ends. Death toll is estimated at ten million.

1918: Spanish Influenza epidemic kills 12.5 million in India, 21.6 million worldwide.

1918: Shirdi Sai Baba, saint to both Hindus and Muslims, dies at approximately age 70.

1919: Brigadier Dyer orders Gurkha troops to shoot unarmed demonstrators in Amritsar, killing 379. Massacre convinces Gandhi that India must demand full independence from oppressive British Christian rule.

1920: Gandhi formulates the satyagraha, “firmness in truth,” strategy of noncooperation and nonviolence against India’s Christian British rulers. Later resolves to wear only dothi to preserve homespun cotton and simplicity.

1920: System of indentured servitude is abolished by India, following grassroots agitation by Mahatma Gandhi.

1920: Ravi Shankar is born in Varanasi, sitar master, composer and founder of National Orchestra of India, he inspires Western appreciation of Indian music.

1922: Pramukh Swami is born, renaissance traditionalist Hindu, head of Bochasanwasi Swaminarayan Sanstha Sangh.

1922: Tagore’s school at Shantineketan (founded 1901) is made into Vishva Bharati Univ. Becomes national Univ., 1951.

1923: US law excludes citizens of India from naturalization.

1924: Sir John Marshall (1876-1958) discovers relics of the Indus Valley Hindu civilization. Begins large-scale excavations.

1925: K.V. Hedgewar (1890-1949) founds Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), a Hindu nationalist movement.

1926: Satya Sai Baba is born, Hindu universalist renaissance charismatic guru, educationalist, worker of miracles.

1927: Sivaya Subramuniyaswami is born, present-day satguru in the Nandinatha Sampradaya’s Kailasa Parampara.

1927: Maharashtra bars tradition of dedicating girls to temples as Devadasis, ritual dancers. Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa soon follow suit; 20 years later, Tamil Nadu bans devotional dancing and singing by women in its thousands of temples and in all Hindu ceremonies.

1927 & 34: Indians permitted to sit as jurors and court magistrates.

1928: Hindu leader Jawaharlal Nehru drafts plan for a free India; becomes president of Congress Party in 1929.

1929: Chellachiamman, woman saint of Sri Lanka, dies. She was mentor to Sage Yogaswami and Kandiah Chettiar.

1931: Shri Chinmoy is born in Bengal, yogi, artist, self-transcendence master and United Nations peace ambassador.

1931: 2.5 million Indians reside overseas; largest communities are in Sri Lanka, Malaya, Mauritius and S. Africa.

1931: Dr. Karan Singh is born, son and heir apparent of Kashmir’s last Maharaja; becomes parliamentarian, Indian ambassador to the US and global Hindu spokesman.

1934: Paul Brunton’s instantly popular A Search in Secret India makes known to the West such illumined holy men as Shri Chandrashekharendra and Ramana Maharshi.

1936-1991: Lifetime of Shrimati Rukmini Devi, founder of Kalakshetra-a school of Hindu classical music, dance, theatrical arts, painting and handicrafts-in Madras.

1938: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan is founded in Bombay by K.M. Munshi to conserve, develop and diffuse Indian culture.

1939: Adolph Hitler’s Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”), manifesto of Nazism, published 1925, sells 5 million copies in 11 languages. It reveals his racist Aryan, anti-Semitic ideology, strategy of revenge and Socialist rise to power.

1939: World War II begins September 3, as France and Britain declare war on Germany after Germany invades Poland.

1939: Maria Montessori (1870-1952), first Italian female physician and “discoverer of the child,” spends nine years in India teaching her kindergarten method and studying Hinduism through the Theosophical Society in Adyar.

1939: Mohammed Ali Jinnah calls for a separate Muslim state.

1941: First US chair of Sanskrit and Indology established at Yale Univ.; American Oriental Society founded in 1942.

1942: At sites along the lost Sarasvati River in Rajasthan, archeologist Sir Aurel Stein finds shards with incised characters identical to those on Indus Valley seals.

1945: Germany surrenders to Allied forces. Ghastly concentration camps that killed 6 million Jews are discovered.

1945: US drops atomic bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshima, Japan, ending World War II. Total war dead is 60 million.

1945: United Nations founded by 4 Allied nations and China to “save succeeding generations from the scourge of war.”

1947: India gains independence from Britain August 15. Pakistan emerges as a separate Islamic nation, and 600,000 die in clashes during subsequent population exchange of 14 million people between the two new countries.

1948: Britain grants colony of Sri Lanka Dominion status and self-government under Commonwealth jurisdiction.

1948: Establishment of Sarva Seva Sangh, Gandhian movement for new social order (Sarvodaya).

1948: Mahatma Gandhi is assassinated January 30th by Nathuram Godse, 35, editor-publisher of a Hindu Mahasabha weekly in Poona, in retaliation for Gandhi’s concessions to Muslim demands and agreeing to partition 27% of India to create the new Islamic nation of Pakistan.

1949: Sri Lanka’s Sage Yogaswami initiates Sivaya Subramuniyaswami as his successor in Nandinatha Sampradaya’s Kailasa Parampara. Subramuniyaswami founds Saiva Siddhanta Church and Yoga Order the same year.

1949: India’s new constitution, authored chiefly by B.R. Ambedkar, declares there shall be no “discrimination” against any citizen on the grounds of caste, jati, and that the practice of “untouchability” is abolished.

1950: Wartime jobs in West, taking women out of home, have led to weakened family, delinquency, cultural breakdown.

1950: India is declared a secular republic. Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru (1947-1964) is determined to abolish casteism and industrialize the nation. Constitution makes Hindi official national language; English to continue for 15 years; 14 major state languages are recognized.

1951: India’s Bharatiya Janata Sangh (BJP) party is founded.

1955-6: Indian government enacts social reforms on Hindu marriage, succession, guardianship, adoption, etc.

1950-60s Tours of Ravi Shankar and Ali Akbar Khan lead to worldwide popularization of Indian music.

1955: Albert Einstein (1879-1955), German physicist formulator of the relativity theory dies. He declared Lord Siva Nataraja best metaphor for the workings of the universe.

1956: Indian government reorganizes states according to linguistic principles and inaugurates second Five-Year Plan.

1956: Swami Satchidananda makes first visit to America.

1957: Sivaya Subramuniyaswami founds Himalayan Academy and opens US’s first Hindu temple, in San Francisco.

1959: Dalai Lama flees Tibet and finds refuge in North India as China invades his Buddhist nation.

1959: The transistor makes computers smaller and faster than prototypes like the 51-foot-long, 8-foot high Mark I, containing I-million parts and 500 miles of wire, invented for the US Navy in 1944 by IBM’s Howard Aiken. From the 1960s onward, integrated circuitry and microprocessors will take computers-descendants of the 5,000-year-old Oriental abacus-to unimaginable levels to revolutionize Earth’s technology and society.

1960: Since 1930, 5% of immigrants to US have been Asians, while European immigrants have constituted 58%.

1960: Border war with China shakes India’s nonaligned policy.

1961: India forcibly reclaims Goa, Damao and Diu from the Portuguese. Goa became a state of India in 1987.

1963: US President Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas, Texas.

1963: Hallucinogenic drug culture arises in US. Hindu gurus decry the false promise and predict “a chemical chaos.”

1964: India’s Vishva Hindu Parishad (VHP), a Hindu religious nationalist movement, is founded to counter secularism.

1964: Rock group, the Beatles, practice Transcendental Meditation (TM), bringing fame to Maharshi Mahesh Yogi.

1965: US immigration cancels racial qualifications and restores naturalization rights. Welcomes 170,000 Asians yearly.

1966: J. Nehru’s daughter, Indira Gandhi, becomes Prime Minister of India, world’s largest democracy, succeeding L. B. Shastri who took office after Nehru’s death in 1964.

1968: US Civil Rights leader Martin Luther King is assassinated.

1969: US astronaut Neil Armstrong sets foot on the moon.

1970: Kauai Aadheenam, Hindu monastery, site of Kadavul Hindu Temple, Saiva Siddhanta Church headquarters, San Marga Sanctuary and editorial offices of Hinduism Today is founded February 5 on Hawaii’s Garden Island.

1971: Rebellion in East Pakistan (formerly Bengal). Ten million Bengalis, mainly Hindus, flee to India. Indo-Pak border clashes escalate to war. India defeats West Pakistan. E. Pakistan becomes independent Bangladesh.

1972: A Historical Atlas of South Asia is produced by Joseph E. Schwartzberg, Siva G. Bajpai, Raj B. Mathur, et al.

1972: Muslim dictator Idi Amin expels Indians from Uganda.

1973: Neem Karoli Baba, Hindu mystic and siddha, dies.

1974: India detonates a “nuclear device.”

1974: Watergate scandal. US President Nixon resigns.

1975: Netherlands gives independence to Dutch Guyana, which becomes Suriname; one third of Hindus (descendants of Indian plantation workers) emigrate to Netherlands for better social and economic conditions.

1977: One hundred thousand Tamil Hindu tea-pickers expatriated from Sri Lanka are shipped to Madras, South India.

1979: Sivaya Subramuniyaswami founds Hinduism Today international newspaper to promote Hindu solidarity.

1980: Grand South Indian counterpart to Kumbha Mela of Prayag, the Mahamagham festival, held every 12 years in Kumbhakonam, on the river Kaveri, two million attend.

1981: India has one-half world’s cattle: 8 cows for every 10 Indians.

1981: Deadly AIDS disease is conclusively identified.

1981: First bharata natyam dance in a temple since 1947 Christian-British ban on Devadasis is arranged by Sivaya Subramuniyaswami at Chidambaram; 100,000 attend.

1983: Violence between Hindu Tamils and Buddhist Singhalese in Sri Lanka marks beginning of Tamil rebellion by Tiger freedom fighters demanding an independent nation called Eelam. Prolonged civil war results.

1984: Balasarasvati, eminent classical Karnatic singer and bharata natyam dancer of worldwide acclaim, dies.

1984: Since 1980, Asians have made up 48% of immigrants to the US, with the European portion shrinking to 12%.

1984: Indian soldiers under orders from Prime Minister Indira Gandhi storm Sikh Golden Temple in Amritsar to crush rebellion. She is assassinated this year by her Sikh bodyguards in retaliation. Her son Rajiv takes office.

1986: Swami Satchidananda dedicates Light of Truth Universal Shrine (LOTUS) at Yogaville in Virginia, USA.

1986: Jiddha Krishnamurti, anti-guru guru, semi-existentialist philosophical Indian lecturer and author, dies.

1986: World Religious Parliament in New Delhi bestows the title Jagadacharya, “world teacher,” on five spiritual leaders outside India: Swami Chinmayananda of Chinmaya Mission (Bombay, India); Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami of Saiva Siddhanta Church and Himalayan Academy (Hawaii-California, USA); Yogiraj Amrit Desai of Kripalu Yoga Center (New York, USA); Pandit Tej Ramji Sharma of Nepali Baba (Kathmandu, Nepal); Swami Jagpurnadas Maharaj (Port Louis, Mauritius).

1987: Colonel S. Rabuka, a Methodist, leads coup deposing Fiji’s Indian-dominated government and instituting military rule. July, 1990, constitution guarantees political majority to ethnic (mostly Christian) Fijians.

1988: General Ershad declares Islam state religion of Bangladesh, outraging 12-million (11%) Hindu population.

1988: US allows annual influx of 270,000 Asian immigrants.

1988: First Global Forum of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders on Human Survival is held at Oxford University, England. Hindus discuss international cooperation with 100 religious leaders and 100 parliamentarians.

1989: Christian missionaries are spending US%165 million per year to convert Hindus.

1990: The Berlin Wall is taken down February 12. Germany is reunited over the next year. Warsaw Pact is dissolved.

1990: Under its new democratic constitution, Nepal remains the world’s only Hindu country.

1990: Hindus flee Muslim persecution in Kashmir Valley.

1990: Foundation stones are laid in Ayodhya for new temple at the birthplace of Lord Rama, as Hindu nationalism rises.

1990: Vatican condemns Eastern mysticism as false doctrine in letter by Cardinal Ratzinger approved by Pope Paul II, to purge Catholic monasteries, convents and clergy of involvement in Eastern meditation, yoga and Zen.

1990: Second Global Forum of Spiritual Leaders and Parliamentarians for Human Survival, in Moscow, cosponsored by Supreme Soviet, gives stage for Hindu thinking. Shringeri sannyasin Swami Paramananda Bharati concludes Forum with Vedic peace prayer in Kremlin Hall, leading 2,500 world leaders in chanting Aum three times.

1990: Communist leadership of USSR collapses, to be replaced by 12 independent democratic nations.

1991: Hindu Renaissance Award is founded by Hinduism Today and declares Swami Paramananda Bharati of Shringeri Matha “1990 Hindu of the Year.”

1991: Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi is assassinated in Tamil Nadu in May. India blames Sri Lankan Tamil separatists.

1991: Indian tribals, adivasis, are 45 million strong.

1991: In Bangalore, India, Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami authorizes renowned architect V. Ganapati Sthapati to begin carving the Chola-style, white-granite, moksha Iraivan Temple in a project guided by Shri Shri Trichy Swami, Shri Shri Balagangadaranathaswami and Shri Sivapuriswami. Shipped to Hawaii’s Garden Island of Kauai and erected on San Marga, Iraivan will be the Western Hemisphere’s first all-stone Agamic temple.The world’s largest single-pointed, six-sided crystal (700 lbs.), known as the Earthkeeper, will be enshrined as its Sivalinga.

1992: Swami Chidananda Saraswati, spiritual head of Parmarth Niketan Trust, with 26 ashramas, is named Hinduism Today’s 1991 Hindu of the Year for founding historic Encyclopedia of Hinduism Indian Heritage project.

1992: World population is 5.2 billion; 17% or 895 million, live in India. Of these, 85%, or 760 million, are Hindu.

1992: Third Global Forum of Spiritual Leaders and Parliamentarians for Human Survival meets in Rio de Janeiro in conjunction with Earth Summit (UNCED). Hindu views of nature, environment and traditional values help inform the 70,000 delegates planning global future.

1992: Hindu radicals demolish Babri Masjid built in 1548 on Rama’s birthplace in Ayodhya by Muslim conqueror Babar after he destroyed a Hindu temple marking the site. The monument was a central icon of Hindu resentment toward Muslim destruction of 60,000 temples.

1993: Fourth Global Forum of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders on Human Survival meets in Kyoto, Japan. Green Cross is founded for environmental protection.

1993: Swami Chinmayananda is named 1992 Hindu of the Year, for lifetime of dynamic service to Sanatana Dharma worldwide-attains mahasamadhi July 26, at age 77.

1993: Swami Brahmananda Sarasvati, renowned yoga scholar, and Swami Vishnu-devananda, author of world’s most popular manual on hatha yoga, reach parinirvana.

1993: Chicago’s historic centenary Parliament of the World’s Religions convenes in September. Presidents’ Assembly, a core group of 25 men and women representing the world’s faiths, is formed to perpetuate Parliament goals.

1994: Harvard University research identifies over 800 Hindu temples open for worship in the United States.

1994: Mata Amritanandamayi (1953-) charismatic woman saint of Kerala, is named 1993 Hindu of the Year.

1994: All India pays homage to Kanchi’s beloved peripatetic tapasvin sage, Shri la Shri Shankaracharya Chandrashekharendra, who passes away January 7, during his 100th year.

1994: Hindu Heritage Endowment, first Hindu international trust, founded by Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami.

2000: World population is 6.2 billion. India population is 1.2 billion: 20% of world (projection by World Watch).

2050: British historian Arnold Toynbee (1889-1975) predicted that at the close of the 20th century the world would still be dominated by the West, but during the 21st century India will conquer her conquerors, preempting the place formerly held by technology. Religion worldwide will be restored to its earlier importance, and the center of world happenings will wander back from the shores of the Atlantic to the East where civilization originated.

2094: Bharat (formerly India) is world’s most populous nation. Sanatana Dharma, finding new expressions through interactive electronic tools, guides humankind’s future. Time flows on. Live long and prosper.

Aum. Shanti, Shanti, Shanti. Aum.

The Essence of the Spiritual Science

HARI OM TAT SAT

In daily life we hear so many people talking, in some way or the other about God, Atma (Soul), Spirit, Mystery of the creation of this Multiverse and similar topics. But, if we are in the quest of one who has realized God, than chances of finding such person are none. No wonder, we see so many frauds among religious heads across the world, who love to talk about God but lack the clarity. They seem to be far from the idea of true love and devotion. A real devotee is the one who sees God beyond this Samsara (samsara means the material world), experiences love everywhere, and doesn’t seek worldly pleasures. She/he is in perfect harmony with all that is bestowed upon him/her and takes the triumphs-disasters and good-bad with equanimity. Joy or sorrow is meaningless to him. Everything is a boon to him from his/her “Beloved Supreme Master (Paramatma)”. This, to me, is the highest form of devotion. However, I do not mean that one should stay idle. God helps those who help themselves. One should work adhering to the will of the God and not worry about the result or be obsessed with expectations. When we reach this point, we may think that we are on the right path of understanding the reality. Reality is not something that can be perceived through the 5 organs of action and 5 organs of knowledge, but it lies in the innermost core of the heart. Therefore, we need to dwelve deep into the heart to solve our problem of life.

This idea we have in our minds about this great multiverse is after all a material manifestation of God. It is the illusion (Maya) that differentiates it from the Absolute reality which is unchanging. It is the power of that supreme intelligent being which has brought into existence the entire creation in its varies forms and shapes and which controls its entire working process and framework. We are that very power indeed and are surrounded by it and we get to feel its activity in its subtle form and its outcome is seen in all segments of our mental and physical doings. We are stuck in the illusion of Maya and going round and round in this samsara, holding on to programmed objects (For example- family, relations, career etc.) thinking that they are real. Our senses, feelings and emotions add to the problem, which is further complexing the situation and molding our actions accordingly. We are guaranteed a life time of suffering by living in these thoughts, which is an illusion and no hope of freedom until we start diverting our energies on the root of it all, which is the unchanging reality – substratum of absoluteness. This vast circle of material manifestation, the direct result of Maya, is infinite. In it we go round and round with endless motion like the rim of a wheel, ever farther and farther away from the pivot. Just as every circle must have a center, so must this vast circle of manifestation should have a base or center too. The whole of the science of mathematics rests upon the little base, the zero. Now for this infinite universe we have to trace out a zero or base from which all planes of existence have started. When the center of the circle is pondered on, than we quickly realize that by itself is another smaller circle with its own finer center. This process continues until infinity. Thoughts fail to reach the origin of this. Thus, applying the same concept, behind this gross material solid universe there is another parallel finer subtler universe which is the center of the gross material solid universe, Again for that finer circle there must be another center, represented by a still finer circle and so on. Our energies should be focused towards routing towards our step back from the present gross form of existence to the previous finer and finer form up to the farthest possible limit of the human approach. Our goal is to push our way through these subtler states towards the center or the root cause of all the regions. That is the real essence of the spiritual science. This is our real goal of our life, this is why we are born; this is what is our eternal quest since time unknown. Missing this is what, that is making us coming back to a life form again and again. Thus the root cause of this Multiverse from the subtlest of the subtle to this grossness is that center, which we call as God.

The configuration that makes the life form is also exactly the same as that of the multiverse described above. Behind the gross physical form of a man there are finer and finer forms of existence. The outermost form is the gross body behind which there exists the astral body and the causal body. There are other so many finer and finer countless layers which cover the soul. With so many countless layers, from the subtlest to the grossest, the life-form of man is in existence in the material world as a true copy of the universe or full manifestation of God , which is represented by a big complete circle from the outermost circumference (T infinite) to the center (T 0, inner most center ). Now, center of a man’s existence and that of God’s manifestation is really the same. Which takes us to the point that if we realize self, its God Realization and vice versa. The entire multiverse came into existence from the same point, the center (the inner most), through the process of creation. Similarly, man’s gross form configuration too developed from the same point.

If this can be put in an equation:

All one consistent, undimensional, Undivided “whatever that is” state at T 0

=

Gross material solid universe at T infiniteMatter x Energy.

(According to Dr. Einstein, matter is energy as established, so the above equation becomes energy squared).

So before the big bang theory (taking it as the an most acceptable theory for cause of creation) , only the T0 state existed and if there was anything that existed it is just that super subtlest state with no individual identity of what so ever. Thus the center with some kind of embryonic or hidden energy all combined together as one unit, led to be the cause of creation when time came. As the creation was happening, everything was assuming a shape and a form of existence. Accordingly Mother Nature gave Homo sapiens an individual existence with shapes and form which through evolutionary process got sophisticated. The consciousness of individuality was the first covering in the configuration of the man. More and more got added including Mind, Senses, Intellect, Ego which lead him to form actions called samskaras, build vasanas, thereby creating impressions which got the man into a final grosser state. Now we have reached to this gross most form. From here our real yatra or journey is with us going backwards and dropping all that’s accrued towards the center passing through subtle states one by one until we reach the center.

It took me years to figure this much out. It’s Yatra or a journey like taking up stairs, one step at a time with each step getting narrower and narrower. Every milestone has a realization and it builds on and becomes possible because of the previous realizations, and the final realization can even seem to contradict a previous realization.

  1. First I realize I am not a person. The person is memories, impressions, false identities created by thoughts.
  2. Then I realize I am not the body nor the mind or its thoughts nor the Prana Shakti, nor the intellect nor the ego.
  3. Then I realize the “I am” is universal, everyone and every living thing or non living is feeling it the same way.
  4. Even the beingness of Universal “Iam” is still a form of illusion and duality, and we will realize and move into and “become” the pure awareness only.
  5. The final realization seems like Nothingness or Voidness. The true aspirant makes the final realization and ceases to exist, Becomes Void and reaches the center and all that is left of him is what was there before the big bang theory. Nothingness doesn’t mean totally nothing, it inexplicably filled with “hidden and mysterious something that is not a thing” the pure awareness, the absolute, aware of itself. This is the only truly real. All else is illusion and false, made of space time fabric, of things which come and go, the dreams of the universal mind.

HARI OM TAT SAT